book
  • [Archive]
  • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
  • pISSN : 2093-6966
  • eISSN : 2234-6856
  • DB Construction : 59 Issues, 667 Articles
Year
Issues
Articles
1 Title
Keywords hematopoietic stem cell; mesenchymal stem cell; Bonghan corpuscle; endothelial cell; extracellular matrix
Author(s) Kim, Min-Su; Hong, Ju-Young; Hong, Su; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Nam, Chang-Hoon; Woo, Hee-Jong; Kang, Dae-In; Soh, Kwang-Sup
  Abstract Objectives : Showing that Bong-Han corpuscles(BHC) are suppliers of the stem cells in adulthood, and the Bong-Han ducts(BHD) are transportation routes of stem cells. Methods : BHC and BHD were obtained from the internal organ-surfaces of rats. The sliced BHC and BHD were immunostained with various stem cell markers. Extracellular matrices were also analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Result : The presence of mesenchymal stem cells was confirmed by the expression of Integrin beta 1, Collagen type 1 and Fibronectin. But CD54 was not expressed. The hematopoietic stem cell marker, Thy 1 was strongly expressed. BHDs showed Collagen type 1, Fibronectin, and vWF expression. Conclusion : Both hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell markers were expressed strongly in BHC similarly as in bone marrow. An endothelial cell marker(vWF) demonstrated the possibility of the stem cell transportation routes of BHD.
2 Title
Keywords Zhong Wan(CV12); Pancreas; Circulatory; Acupuncture; Alcian blue
Author(s) Kim, Min-Soo; Sung, Baeck-Kyoung; Ogay, Vyacheslav; Choi, Chun-Ju; Kim, Min-Su; Kang, Dae-In; Soh, Kwang-Sup
  Abstract Objectives : Demonstrating a novel circulatory path from the acupoint(CV12) to the pancreas. Method : Alcian blue(1% solution, , pH 7.4) was injected into the acupoint(CV12). Two hours later the surfaces of internal organs were observed by using a stereomicroscope. Results : Alcian blue arrived and colored the omental fat band(OFB) on the pancreas. The OFB connected the head and tail of the pancreas, the pancreas and the spleen, and the pancreas and the stomach. Conclusion : The existence of a novel circulatory path from the acupoint CV12 to the pancreas and its OFB was demonstrated.
3 Title
Keywords Sweet Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture; Cancer-related Pain
Author(s) Yoo, Hwa-Seung; Kim, Jung-Sun
  Abstract Objectives : To investigate the therapeutic effects of SBVP in the treatment of patients with cancer-related pain. Design : A prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of SBVP. Setting : The study was conducted at the East West Cancer Center of Daejeon University Dunsan Oriental Hospital from March 1, 2007 to June 20, 2007. Patients : 11 patients diagnosed with cancer-related pain of over 3rd degree on the Numeric Rating Scale(NRS)(0, no pain at all, 10, worst pain imaginable) were entered into a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of SBVP. They were randomized into Groups A and B(SBVP and control group, respectively) using the table of random sampling numbers and never informed of their affiliation by the coordinator. 5 of 6 patients in Group A and 4 of 5 patients in Group B completed the clinical trial. Intervention : SBVP(1ml/day) for group A and Normal Saline Placebo(1ml/day) for group B was injected into the abdomen acupoint, Zhong Wan(CV 12). The treatment was administered daily for five days. Outcome Measures : Degree of cancer-related pain was measured using the Numeric Rating Scale(NRS) before and after each treatment for "Pain right now" and "Average pain in last 24 hours". Statistical Analysis : Analysis regarding variations in NRS was carried out by applying t-tests(independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test) and Wilcoxon signed rank test with level of significance at 5%. Results : Differences in NRS of "Pain right now" for the two groups were statistically significant. The mean improvement point of SBVP was significantly higher than the control group( vs , p<0.05). Differences in average pain score before and after treatment in SBVP group were also significant( vs , p<0.05) compared with control group. The two groups showed no significant differences for long term effects in "Average pain in last 24 hours." Conclusion : Although further study will be needed on the large scale, SBVP shows potential as an effective treatment for immediate relief of cancer-related pain.
4 Title
Keywords Bee Venom; Sweet Bee Venom; osteoarthritis of the knee; pain relief effect; allergic response
Author(s) Kim, Sung-Chul; Na, Won-Min; Lee, Sung-Young; Jang, Eun-Ha; Lim, Seung-Il;
  Abstract Objectives : To verify pain relief effects and allergy inhibitory action for the osteoarthritis of the knee joint in Sweet Bee Venom in which allergy causing enzyme is removed. Methods : We randomly allocated 30 participants to treatment group Sweet Bee Venom and Bee Venom. Outcomes on pain reduction were measured by 100mm VAS(Visual Analog Scale). And we recorded into details allergic responses during Pharmacopuncture treatment. Results : Whole body condition and pain rate through VAS measurement were improved significantly in 2 weeks. We could get difference in pain score of two Pharmacopuncture groups significantly in 2 weeks. Sweet BV group() showed superior reduction in pain compared to the BV group() significantly. And other allergic responses such as edema, itchiness, pain were significantly lower in the Sweet BV group
5 Title
Keywords Sweet Bee Venom; Bee Venom; Heart Rate Variability; Sweet BV; BV; HRV
Author(s) Yook, Tae-Han; Yu, Jung-Suk; Jung, Han-Sung
  Abstract Objective : In this study, we investigated the effects of Sweet Bee Venom(SBV) and Bee Venom(BV) at a acupoint, HT7(Shinmun) on the Heart Rate Variability(HRV) in the healthy man. And we tried to observe how Sweet Bee Venom and Bee Venom affects on the balance of the autonomic nervous system. Methods : We investigated on 22 heathy volunteers consisted of 10 subjects in SBV group and 12 subjects in BV group. Study form was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. 22 subjects of each group were injected SBV and BV at HT7(Shinmun). And we measured HRV by QECG-3:LXC3203 (LAXTHA Inc. Korea) on 7 times : before and after injection per 5minutes during 30minutes. Results : 1. After SBV injection, Mean-RR was significantly high from 0 to 10 minutes, Mean-HRV was significantly low from to 10 minutes, SDNN was significantly high after 25minutes, Complexity was significantly high from 5 to 10 minutes and RMSSD was significantly high from 5 to 10minutes. 2. Complexity of SBV Group significantly decreased from 20 to 25minutes, RMSSD of SBV Group significantly increased from 10 to 15minute and from minutes, SDSD of SBV Group significantly increased from 10 to 15 minute and from minutes compared with that of BV group. 3. After SBV injection, Ln(VLF) was significantly from 25 to 30minutes. Conclusions : The results suggest that SBV in heathy adult man tend to activate the autonomic nervous system compared to BV within normal range.
6 Title
Keywords Wild Ginseng; Herbal Acupuncture; HRV; autonomic nervous system
Author(s) Roh, Jeong-Du; Kim, Lak-Hyung; Song, Beom-Yong; Yook, Tae-Han
  Abstract Objective : We investigated the effects of distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture on autonomic nervous system with the Heart Rate Variability(HRV) in adult man. as well as we tried to observe how distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture on the balance of the autonomic nervous system. Method : We investigated the effects of distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture on autonomic nervous system with the Heart Rate Variability(HRV) in adult man. as well as we tried to observe how distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture on the balance of the autonomic nervous system. 1 healthy volunteers consisted of 31 subjects in experiment(distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture) group and 30 subjects in control(Normal Saline) group. Study form was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. 31 subjects in experiment group were injected distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture at (Kyonjong) and 30 subjects in control group were injected Normal Saline at (Kyonjong). except of 2 subjects(in control group) who can't be measured and 11 subjects(7 in experiment group and 4 in control group) who move or make unforceable error during measuring. Finally 24 subject in experiment group and 24 subject in control group are studied. We measured HRV by PolyG-I on 7 times : before and after injection per 5 minutes during 30 minutes. The SPSS 10.0 for windows was used to analyze the data and the paired t-test(in group) and Student t-test(between two groups) were used to verify the result. Result : 1. After distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture injection, Mean HRV is significantly low only for first 5 minute, SDNN is significantly high after 5 minute, Complexity is significantly low after 5 minute, HRV index is significantly high after 10 minute and pNN50 is significantly low after 5 minute. 2. SDNN of distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture Group significantly increased from 20minute to 25minute, and pNN50 of distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture Group significantly decreased from 10minute to 15minute and 20 minute to 30 minute compared with those of Normal Saline group. 3. After distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture injection, Ln(TP), Ln(VLF) and Ln(LF) are significantly high after 5 minute, normalized LF is significantly high after 5 minute and normalized HF is significantly low after 5 minute. 4. Ln(TP) and Ln(VLF) of distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture Group significantly increased from 20minute to 25 minute compared with those of Normal Saline group. Conclusion : The results suggest that distilled Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture in healthy adult man tend to activate the autonomic nervous system and sympathetic nervous system compared to Normal Saline within normal range.
7 Title
Keywords pirodelae Herba; pharmacopuncture; preadipocyte; adipocytes; lipolysis
Author(s) Cho, Sung-Eon; Kim, Byoung-Woo; Rhim, Tae-Jin; Kim, Dong-Heui; Kwo, Ki-Rok
  Abstract Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Spirodelae Herba pharmacopuncture(SHP) on the adipogenesis in 3T3 cells, lipolysis in rat epididymal adipocytes and histological changes in porcine adipose tissue. Methods : Inhibition of preadipocyte differentiation and/or stimulation of lipolysis play important roles in reducing obesity. 3T3 preadipocytes were differentiated with adipogenic reagents by incubating for 3 days in the absence or presence of SHP ranging from 0.01 to . The effect of SHP on adipogenesis was examined by measuring glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GPDH) activity and by Oil Red O staining. Mature adipocytes from rat epididymal fat pad was incubated with SHP ranging from 0.01 to for 3 days. The effect of SHP on lipolysis was examined by measuring free glycerol released. Fat tissue from porcine skin was injected with SHP ranging from 0.1 to to examine the effect of SHP onhistological changes under light microscopy. Results : Following results were obtained from the preadipocyte proliferation and lipolysis adipocyte and histologic investigation of fat tissue 1. SHP showed the effect of decreased preadipocyte proliferation on the high dosage(). 2. SHP showed the effect of decreased the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) on the high dosage(). 3. Investigated the changes in lipolysis of differentiated adipocyte after treated SHP, we knew that these pharmacopuncture showed increasing the effect of lipolysis in all concentration significantly. 4. Investigated the histological changes in porcine fat tissue after treated SHP, we knew that these pharmacopuncture showed significant activity to the lysis of extensive cell membranes on high dosage(). Conclusions : These results suggest that SHP efficiently induces diminishing proliferation of preadipocyte and lipolysis in adipose tissue.
8 Title
Keywords Rehmannia glutinosa; Herbal Acupuncture; HRV; autonomic nervous system
Author(s) Shin, Jin-Cheol; Kim, Lak-Hyung; Song, Beom-Yong; Yook, Tae-Han
  Abstract Objectives : We investigated the effects of distilled Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture on autonomic nervous system with the Heart Rate Variability(HRV) in adult man. as well as we tried to observe how distilled Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture on the balance of the autonomic nervous system. Methods : We investigated on 58 healthy volunteers consisted of 28 subjects in experiment(distilled Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture) group and 30 subjects in control(Normal Saline) group. Study form was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. 28 subjects in experiment group were injected distilled Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture at (Kyonjong) and 30 subjects in control group were injected Normal Saline at (Kyonjong). except of 2 subjects(in control group) who can't be measured and 6 subjects(2 in experiment group and 4 in control group) who move or make unforceable error during measuring. Finally 26 subject in experiment group and 24 subject in control group are studied. We measured HRV by PolyG-I on 7 times : before and after injection per 5 minutes during 30 minutes. The SPSS 10.0 for windows was used to analyze the data and the paired t-test(in group) and Student t-test(between two groups) were used to verify the result. Results : 1. After distilled Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture injection, Mean HRV is significantly low only for first 5 minute, SDNN is significantly high after 5 minute, Complexity is significantly low only from 20 minute to 25 minute. HRV index is significantly high for first 5minute and from 10 minute to after 10 minute. 2. HRV index of distilled Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture Group significantly increased from 25 minute to 30 minute, and pNN50 of Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture Group significantly decreased from 20 minute to 30 minute compared with those of Normal Saline group. 3. After distilled Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture injection, Ln(TP) and Ln(VLF) are significantly high after injection. Normalized LF is significantly high from 5 minute to 20 minute and from 25 minute and 30 minute. Normalized HF is significantly low from 5minute to 20 minute and from 25 minute and 30 minute. 4. Ln(TP) and Ln(VLF) of distilled Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture Group significantly increased from 20 minute to 25 minute compared with those of Normal Saline group. Conclusions : The results suggest that Rehmannia glutinosa Herbal Acupuncture in healthy adult man tend to activate the autonomic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system compared to Normal Saline within normal range.
9 Title
Keywords Staphylococcus aureus; keratitis; Herbal eye drops(Sean-tang, Jinpi-san, Tangpo-san, Copitdis Rhizoma); MIC; Inhibition zone; Growth inhibition effect
Author(s) Seo, Hyeong-Sik
  Abstract Objectives : This experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of herbal eye drops(Sean-tang, Jinpi-san, Tangpo-san, Copitdis Rhizoma) on Staphylococcus aureus keratitis. Methods : After administering various herbal eye drops on Staphylococcus aureus, I measured MIC and the size of inhibition zone. MIC was measured by dropping from 20 to according to density. Anti-bacterial potency was measured by the size of inhibition zone with change of volume under 2 days culture condition. Also continuous antibacterial potency of herbal eye drops was measured by the size of inhibition zone according to 2 days and 6 days culture each under the condition. Results : 1. MIC on Staphylococcus aureus in Sean-tang, Jinpi-san and Tangpo-san was 100%, . 2. MIC on Staphylococcus aureus in Coptidis rhizoma was 10%, . 3. MIC on Staphylococcus aureus in Cravit was 0.1%, . 4. Under the 2 days culture condition, the size of inhibition zone on Staphylococcus aureus by volume for Sean-tang was 12.0mm in , Jinpi-san was 19.0mm in , Tangpo-san was 15.0mm in , Coptidis rhizoma was 32.7 mm in and Cravit was 31mm in , Coptidis rhizoma showed the highest anti-bacterial potency. 5. Under the condition, the size of inhibition zone on Staphylococcus aureus by 2 and 6 culture days for Sean-tang was 12.0mm, Jinpi-san was 19.0mm, Tangpo-san was 15.0mm, Coptidis rhizoma was 32.7mm and Cravit was 31.0 mm, which showed sameness anti-bacterial potency in 2 days and 6 days. Conclusions : The present author think that the herbal eye drops can be used to cure Staphylococcus aureus keratitis and if further study is performed, the use of the herbal eye drops will be valuable and beneficial in the clinical medicines.
10 Title
Keywords antioxidant activity; hot pepper; capsaicin; TAC; ORAC; DPPH; Total phenolic content; TBARS
Author(s) Gang, Hyeon-Min; Park, Hee-Soo; Rhim, Tae-Jin; Kwon, Ki-Rok
  Abstract Objective : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin. Methods : In vitro, antioxidant activities were examined by DPPH radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity(TAC), oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC), inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochonria and total phenolic contents. Results : 1. DPPH free radical scavenging activities at the concentrations of both 1 and were 1.2 to 1.9 times higher in capsaicin than in hot pepper extract. The concentration of capsaicin required for 50% radical scavenging was lower than that of hot pepper extract(3.9 vs ), indicating that capsaicin had higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than hot pepper extract. 2. Total antioxidant capacities of capsaicin at the concentrations of 0.1 and 1mg/ml(13.8 and 41.3 nmol Trolox equivalent) were not significantly different from those at the concentrations of 1 and (11.4 and 41.2nmol Trolox equivalent), indicating that capsaicin showed 10 times higher ABTS radical scavenging activity compared to hot pepper extract. 3. ORAC of capsaicin at the concentrations of 1, 5, 10 and 100 mg/ml were 0.04, 0.17, 0.29 and 1.74nmol gallic acid equivalent, respectively. On the other hand, ORAC of hot pepper extract at the concentrations of 1, 5, 10 and were 0.15, 0.44, 0.75 and 2.49nmol gallic acid equivalent, respectively, indicating that capsaicin showed higher peroxyl radical scavenging activity than hot pepper extract. 4. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation caused by hot pepper extract at the concentrations of 1 and were 12.2 and 61.4%, respectively. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation caused by capsaicin at the concentrations of 1 and were 64.0 and 96.8%, respectively. Thus capsaicin showed 10 times stronger effect in inhibiton of lipid peroxidation than hot pepper extract. 5. Total phenolic contents of hot pepper extract at the concentrations of 0.1 and were 1.4 and 20.8nmol gallic acid equivalent, respectively. Total phenolic contents of capsaicin at the concentrations of 0.1 and were 6.1 and 55.4 nmol gallic acid equivalent, respectively, indicating that capsaicin had 2.7 to 4.3 times higher total phenolic contents than hot pepper extract. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate significant antioxidant activity of hot pepper extract, although the activity was lowered compared to capsaicin, suggesting that hot pepper extract play a role in prevention of oxidative-related diseases.
11 Title
Keywords Houttuyniae Herba; Houttuyniae Herba extract; Propionibactrium acnes; Anti-inflammation; Anti-oxidation; DPPH
Author(s) Jeon, Oh-do; Seo, Hyeong-Sik
  Abstract Objective : This experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of Houttuyniae Herba extract on anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation. Methods : The cytotoxicity of Houttuyniae Herba water extract and ethanol extract about viability of Raw 264.7 cell were tested using a colormetric tetrazolium assay(MTT assay). We investigated the inhibitory effects of Houttuyniae Herba water extract and ethanol extract on Propionibactrium acnes using paper disk diffusion method. To investigate the anti-inflammation effects of Houttuyniae Herba water extract and ethanol extract on LPS-induced macrophage Raw 264.7 cell, we used ELISA kit. We evaluated anti-oxidation effects of Houttuyniae Herba water extract and ethanol extract on HaCaT cell by Enzyme recycling method. Results : 1. In Houttuyniae Herba water extract and ethanol extract, cell toxicity depended on the density and wasn't difference between two extracts. 2. Houttuyniae Herba water extract and ethanol extract has not the significant inhibition effect of Propionibactrium acnes. 3. Concentration of 50, Houttuyniae Herba water extract inhibited the production of NO in the Raw 264.7 cell stimulated with LPS. 4. All extracts except for Houttuyniae Herba water extract showed anti-oxidation effect by decreasing the DPPH radicals. Conclusion : These results indicate that Houttuyniae Herba extract has anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation effects. If further study is performed, the use of Houttuyniae Herba extract will be valuable and benificial in the therapy of Propionibactrium acnes.
12 Title
Keywords Chowiseungcheng-tang; Alcohol extracts; Water extracts; Preadipocytes; Poliferation; Adipocytes; Lipolysis; Fat tissues
Author(s) Lee, Jae-Eun; Kim, Byoung-Woo; Rhim, Tae-Jin; Kim, Dong-Heui; Kwon, Ki-Rok
  Abstract Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Chowiseungcheng-tang extracts on the preadipocytes proliferation in 3T3-L1 cell line, lipolysis of adipocytes in rat's epididymal adipocytes and localized fat accumulation of porcine by extraction methods(alcohol and water). Methods : Diminish preadipocytes proliferation and promote lipolysis of adipocytes do primary role to reduce obesity. So, we used 3T3-L1 mouse embryo fibroblasts(preadipocytes) and rat epididymal adipocytes from Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the effects of Chowiseungcheng-tang extracts on the preadipocytes proliferation, lipolysis of adipocytes. They were treated with 0.01, 0.1, Chowiseungcheng-tang alcohol and water extracts. And for the purpose of investigating the effects of Chowiseungcheng-tang alcohol and water extracts on the localized fat accumulation, we injected 0.1, 1.0, Chowiseungcheng-tang extracts to porcine fat tissues and observed histological changes of them. Results : Following results were obtained from the preadipocytes proliferation and lipolysis of adipocytes and histological investigation of fat tissues. 1. Chowiseungcheng-tang extracts suppressed preadipocytes proliferation on the high dosage(especially ), and especially alcohol extracts had better effects. 2. The alcohol extracts of Chowiseungcheng-tang decreased the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) on the concentrations of 0.1, . Alcohol extracts had better effects than water extracts. 3. Chowiseungcheng-tang extracts increased lipolysis of adipocytes on the concentrations of 0.1, , and especially on the concentration of alcohol extract of Chowiseungcheng-tang had better effect. 4. The water extract of Chowiseungcheng-tang had significant activity to the destruction of porcine fat cell membranes only on the concentration of , but alcohol extracts of Chowiseungcheng-tang had it on all concentrations. Conclusions : The alcohol extracts of Chowiseungcheng-tang had much better effects on the preadipoeytes proliferaton, lipolysis of adipocytes and localized fat accumulation than water extracts.
13 Title
Keywords Jeondo-san; Antioxidant effects; DPPH; GSH; ROS
Author(s) Choi, Kwan-Ho; Seo, Hyeong-Sik
  Abstract Objectives : This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant effects of Jeondo-san(JDS). Methods : The antioxidant effects of JDS were measured by the scavenging for 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) radical, the formation of intracellular glutathione(GSH), the inhibition for reactive oxygen species(ROS). Results : 1. All concentrations of JDS showed antioxidant effect by decreasing the DPPH radicals. 2. All concentrations of JDS did not effect on the formation of intracellular GSH in HaCaT cell. 3. All Concentrations of JDS inhibited the production of ROS in the HaCaT cell stimulated with . Conclusion : The present date suggest that JDS has effects on the stage of inflammation.
14 Title
Keywords Hot pepper; capsaicin; preadipocyte; adipocyte; lipolysis; Pharmacopuncture
Author(s) Chu, Ching-Sheng; Rhim, Tae-Jin; Kim, Dong-Heui; Kwon, Ki-Rok
  Abstract Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, lipolysis in rat epididymal adipocytes and histological changes in porcine adipose tissue. Methods : Inhibiton of preadipocyte differentiation and/or stimulation of lipolysis play important roles in reducing obesity. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated with adipogenic reagents by incubating for 3 days in the absence or presence of hot pepper extract or capsaicin ranging from 0.01 to . The effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on adipogenesis were examined by measuring GPDH activity and by Oil Red O staining. Mature adipocytes from rat epididymal fat pad was incubated with hot pepper extract or capsaicin ranging from 0.01 to for 3 hrs. The effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on lipolysis were examined by measuring free glycerol released. Fat tissue from pig skin was injected with hot pepper extract or capsaicinCFP ranging from 0.1 to to examine the effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on histological changes under light microscopy. Results : The following results were obtained from present study on adipogenesis of preadipocytes, lipolysis of adipocytes and histological changes in fat tissue. 1. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin inhibited adipogenic differentiation at the concentration of 0.1 and , respectively, indicating that capsaicin was more effective in inhibiting adipogenesis than hot pepper extract. 2. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin decreased the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GPDH) at the concentration of 0.1 and , respectively, indicating that capsaicin was more effective in inhibiting adipogenic differentiation than hot pepper extract. 3. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin increased glycerol release at the concentration of . There was no difference in lipolytic activity between hot pepper extract and capsaicin at the corresponding concentration. 4. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin caused shrinkage of fat cells, resulting in cell death at the concentration of , although capsaicin exerted this action over wide area than hot pepper extract. Conclusions : These results suggest that hot pepper extract and capsaicin efficiently inhibited adipogenesis, increased lipolysis of adipocytes and caused to shrink fat cells. Future studies are needed to make use of hot pepper extract pharmacopuncture for the treatment of obesity.
15 Title
Keywords Bangpungtongsung-san; alcohol extract; Water extracts; 3T3-L1 preadipocyte; adipocytes; lipolysis; Fat tissues
Author(s) Lee, Sang-Min; Kim, Byoung-Woo; Rhim, Tae-Jin; Kim, Dong-Heui; Kwon, Ki-Rok
  Abstract Objective : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Bangpungtongsung-san extracts on the preadipocytes proliferation, of 3T3-L1 cell line. lipolysis of adipocytes in rat's epididymis and localized fat accumulation of porcine by extraction methods(alcohol and water). Methods : Diminish 3T3-L1 proliferation and lipogenesis do primary role to reduce obesity. So, 3T3-L1 preadipocyte and adipocytes were performed on cell cultures, and using Sprague-Dawley rats for the lipogenesis, and treated with 0.01- Bangpungtongsung-san Extracts depend on concentrations. Porcine skin including fat tissue after treated Bangpungtongsung-san Extracts by means of the dosage dependent variation are investigated the histologic changes after injection of these extracts. Results : Following results were obtained from the 3T3-L1 preadipocyte proliferation and lipolysis of adipocyte in rats and histologic investigation of fat tissue. 1. Bangpungtongsung-san extracts were showed the effect of decreased preadipocyte proliferation on the high dosage(). 2. Bangpungtongsung-san extracts were showed the effect of decreased the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GPDH) on the high dosage() and Specially, alcohol extract of Bangpungtongsung-san was clear as time goes by high concentration. 3. Bangpungtongsung-san extracts were showed tries to compare the effect of lipolysis, alcohol extract of Bangpungtongsung-san on the high dosage() was observed the effect is higher than water extract. 4. Investigated the histological changes in porcine fat tissue after treated Bangpungtongsung-san extracts, we knew that water extract of Bangpungtongsung-san was showed the effect of lipolysis on the high dosage() and alcohol extract of Bangpungtongsung-san was showed significant activity to the lysis of cell membranes in all concentration. Conclusion : These results suggest that Bangpungtongsung-san efficiently induces diminish proliferation of preadipocyte and lipolysis in adipose tissue.
16 Title
Keywords Supercritical fluid extraction, Yongdamsagan-tang(龍膽瀉肝湯), Herbal acupuncture, Hydrodistillation, Antimicrobial action
Author(s) Shin, Min-Seop; Yook, Tae-Han
  Abstract Objectives : This study was performed to analyze the effective components of essential oil obtained from Yongdamsagantang, which has been efficacious against leukorrhea in gynecologic diseases. Methods : I obtained the essential oils of Yongdamsagan-tang by hydrodistillation extraction method and supercritical fluid extraction(SFE) method, and then I analyzed those by GC/MS(Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrum). Results : 1. The optimum SFE(Supercritical Fluid Extraction) condition was obtained in the following experiment conditions: pressure 200atm, temperature , duration of extraction 25minutes. 2. With GC(Gas Chromatography) and GC/MS(Gas Chromato- graphy/Mass Spectrum) analysis, I identified 37 compounds in the Yongdamsagan-tang's essential oil obtained through the SFE method. The main compounds were as follows : 3-Methyl-but-2-enoic acid,2,2-dimethyl-8-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H,8H -pyrano[3,2-g]chromen-3-yl ester(49.81%), (Z)-6-Pentadecen-1 -ol(3.19%), (-)-Spathulenol(2.40%). 3. I identified 4 compounds in the Yongdamsagan-tang's essential oil obtained through the hydrodistillation method. The main compounds were as follows : 3-Methyl-but-2-enoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-8-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H,8H-pyrano [3,2-g]chromen-3-yl ester(2.61%). 4. 3-Methy I-but-2-enoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-8-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H,8H-pyrano[3,2-g] chromen-3-yl ester, all were identified in both the SFE method and the hydrodistillation method, but the others were not identified in common. 5. I also conducted an additional test in order to examine the essential oil's antimicrobial action against bacteria. Both MIC(Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations) and MBC(Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations) were against N. meningitidis, however MIC and MBC were in antimicrobial action against 12 different genera of bacteria.
17 Title
Keywords
Author(s) Ahn, Chul-Woo; Min, Young-Kwang; Ahn, Chang-Beohm; Jang, Kyung-Jun; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Song, Choon-Ho; Yoon, Hyun-Min
  Abstract In Yingshu(靈樞), Sumun(素問) and Najing(難經), there are differences in viewing FiveSu-point(五輸穴) and its practical application in treatment. The following conclusions are induced from these different point of views. 1. Fundamental features of FiveSu-point are shown inYingshu(靈樞) 2. In Internal classic(內經) and Najing(難經), it seems attachment that FiveSu-point is identical to the Five Elements, but there are differences in using the Five Elements sangsyang-sangguk in treatment. 3. There are clear differences between Internal classic(內經) and Najing(難經) in attachment of FiveSu-point and Fourseasons. Differences are shown in each chapter of Yingshu(靈樞). 4. Different application of FiveSu-point's various cases is shown in Yingshu(靈樞), Sumun(素問) and Najing(難經). 5. Different application of FiveSu-point in Yingshu(靈樞), Sumun(素問) and Najing(難經) is due to different historical background.
18 Title
Keywords Progression; Prognosis; domino effect; fade out of symptoms; Five Evils Theory
Author(s) Kwon, Ki-Rok
  Abstract Objectives : This study was designed to make beneficial proposal for clinical application on some of the most common disorders treated by Oriental medicine by analyzing treatment process and prognosis. Methods : Number of peculiar attributes pertaining to a specific disorder were analyzed and based on those attributes, patterns associated with process and prognosis were interpreted in reference with classical literatures. Results : 1. Factors which can influence the progression and prognosis include time of onset, intensity of symptoms, course of passage, effects of risk factors, condition of the patient's righteous qi(正氣), accuracy of differential diagnosis made by the practitioner, accuracy of treatment methods, and other unexpected external influences. 2. Correlation between the condition of disorders and treatment progression is closely associated with proper treatment procedures and performances. The time of onset and intensity play critical roles in the treatment process and prognosis and showed pattern tendency with mutual interactions. 3. When there is complication of various disorders, it is ideal to give priority to more urgent illness and take care of moderate illness later. If there isn't any correlation between disorders, treat them in the order of acute to chronic disorders. The approach is reversed when disorders are related, treating in the order of most chronic to most acute. 4. In a case of complication of various disorders, depending on the disorder being acute or chronic, intensity, and accuracy of treatments, either a domino effect or gradual fade out of symptoms were witnessed. 5. The concept of "Five Evils Theory" according to Nan Jing(Difficult Classic) is essential in grasping disease progression due to interrelationships between zangfu organs. Conclusions : Predicting of disease process and prognosis for vast array of disorders treated by Oriental medicine is a very difficult task, yet evaluating the disorder's peculiar properties and influential factors resulted in few principles which can be effectively applied into clinical applications.