• [Archive]
  • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
  • pISSN : 2093-6966
  • eISSN : 2234-6856
  • DB Construction : 59 Issues, 667 Articles
1 Title
Keywords Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture; nitrite scavenging ability; SOD-like activity; antioxidant activity
Author(s) Kim, Sung-Chul; Seo, Geun-Young; Lee, Sung-Won; Park, Sung-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hyo; Ahn, Seong-Hun; Hwang, Sung-Yeoun
  Abstract Reactive Oxygen Species(ROS) are continuously produced at a high rate as a by-product of aerobic metabolism. Since tissue damage by free radical increases with age, the reactive oxygen species(ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide(), nitric oxide(NO). Several lines of evidence provided that ROS appears to cause to develop aging-related various diseases such as cancer, arthritis, cardiovascular disease. Our reserch objective was to examine the in vitro biological activity of Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture, including the total poly-phenol content, DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, Superoxide dismutase(SOD)-like activity, Nitrite scavenging ability. The total poly-phenol contents of Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture was 35.859mg/L. Elctron donation ability on DPPH was 36.82%. The 2,2'-azinobis-3-ehtlbezothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical decolorization (ABTS) was 84.7%. The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activities of Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture was 44.33%. The nitrite scavenging effects were pH dependent, and were highest at pH 1.5(45.2%) and lowest at pH 6.0(11.3%). We conclude that Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture may be useful as potential sources of antioxidant.
2 Title
Keywords Melittin; Sweet Bee Venom; cardiovascular system; Beagle dog
Author(s) Lim, Chung-San; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kwon, Ki-Rok
  Abstract Objectives: This study was performed to analyse the effects of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV) on cardiovascular system in the conscious telemetered Beagle Dogs. Methods: All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical studies authorized institution, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). Male Beagle dogs of 13-19 months old were chosen for the pilot study and surgical implantation was performed for conscious telemetered Beagle dogs. And after confirming condition of Beagle dogs was stable, Sweet BV was administered 4 times(first: 0.0 mg/kg, 2nd: 0.01 mg/kg, 3rd: 0.1 mg/kg, and forth: 0.5 mg/kg, one time/week) in thigh muscle of Beagle dogs. And blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiography and clinical responses were measured. Equal amount of normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered to the control group. Results: 1. In the analysis of body weight and taking amount, Beagle dogs did not show significant changes. 2. In the clinical observation, responses of pain and edema were showed depend on dosage of Sweet BV. 3. In the analysis of blood pressure, treatment with Sweet BV did not show significant changes in the dosage of 0.01 mg/kg, but in the dosage of 0.1 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg, treatment with Sweet BV increased blood pressure significantly. 4. In the analysis of heart rate, treatment of Sweet BV did not show significant changes in all dosage and period. 5. In the analysis of electrocardiography, treatment of Sweet BV was not showed significant changes in all dosage and period. Conclusion: Above findings suggest that Sweet BV is relatively safe treatment in the cardiovascular system. But in the using of over dosage, Sweet BV may the cause of increasing blood pressure. Further studies on the subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.
3 Title
Keywords pharmacopuncture; anti-inflammatory herbal compound; colitis; rat
Author(s) Song, Jeong-Bang; Sohn, In-Chul; Ahn, Seong-Hun; Kim, Jae-Hyo
  Abstract Objectives: Colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease characterized by colonic mucosal inflammation and chronic relapsing events represents. The purpose of this study is to evaluate effects of pharmacopuncture of anti-inflammatory herbal compound (AiC) applied to the different acupoints in the acute colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) intracolonic injection in rats. Methods: In Male Sprague - Dawley rats, weighing 250~400g, TNBS (5 mg/kg) was infused intrarectally through a silicon rubber catheter into the anus under isoflurane anaesthesia. Acupoints of LI4 (Hapkok), ST25 (Cheonchu), ST36 (Joksamni), and BL25 (Daejangsu) were intramuscularly injected by AiC, respectively (injection volume & times: 0.2 ml / acupoint, twice times on the 2nd & 3rd day). Expressions of cFos protein in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), locus coeruleus (LC), nucleus of solitary tract (Sol), and the 6th lumbar spinal cord (L6 s.c.) were observed at 24 hr after TNBS induced colitis by immunohistochemistry. Results: The expression of c-Fos protein in the L6 s.c., Sol, LC and PAG increased 24 hr after TNBS injection into colorectum as compared to normal and 50% ethanol treated group. AiC to LI4 inhibited the expression of c-Fos protein in Sol and PAG but not L6 s.c. and LC. AiC to ST36 showed significant inhibition the c-Fos expression in L6 s.c., Sol and PAG. AiC to ST25 only showed the effects in L6 s.c. and PAG. AiC to BL25 inhibited significantly the expression of c-Fos protein all over the areas. To investigate whether or not endogenous opioids are involved, intrathecal injection of naltrexone (30ug/30ul) was applied before the 2nd pharmacopuncture treatment 24 hr after TNBS-induced colitis in rat. Naltrexone reversed the inhibition of c-Fos protein expression in the spinal cord and brainstem. Conclusions: These data show that pharmacopuncture of Aic potently inhibits signal pathways ascending hypersensitivity of colorectum after TNBS induced colitis and depends on the endogenous opioids according to acupoints.
4 Title
Keywords Gallic acid; Macrophage; Interleukin; Inflammation; lipopolysaccharide
Author(s) Park, Wan-Su
  Abstract Objectives: Gallic acid (GA) is the major component of tannin which could be easily founded in various natural materials such as green tea, red tea, grape juice, and Corni Fructus. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Gallic acid (GA) on production of interleukin (IL) in mouse macrophage Raw 264.7 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: Productions of interleukins were measured by High-throughput Multiplex Bead based Assay with Bio-plex Suspension Array System based on (multi-analyte profiling beads) technology. Firstly, cell culture supernatant was obtained after treatment with LPS and GA for 24 hour. Then, it was incubated with the antibody-conjugated beads for 30 minutes. And detection antibody was added and incubated for 30 minutes. And Strepavidin-conjugated Phycoerythrin (SAPE) was added. After incubation for 30 minutes, the level of SAPE fluorescence was analyzed on Bio-plex Suspension Array System and concentration of interleukin was determined. Results: The results of the experiment are as follows. 1. GA significantly inhibited the production of IL-3, IL-10, IL-12p40, and IL-17 in LPS-induced mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells at the concentration of 25, 50, 100, 200 uM (p<0.05). 2. GA significantly inhibited the production of IL-6 in LPS-induced mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells at the concentration of 50, 100, 200 uM (p<0.05). 3. GA diminished the production of some cytokine such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in LPS-induced mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. 4. GA did not show the inhibitory effect on the production of IL- and IL-9 in LPS-induced mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Conclusions: These results suggest that GA has anti-inflammatory activity related with its inhibitory effects on the production of interleukins such as IL-3, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-17, and IL-6 in LPS-induced macrophages.
5 Title
Keywords Paljeong-san; Pharmacopuncture; Peritoneal Injection; Acute Renal Failure
Author(s) Lim, Chi-Yeon; Kim, Min-Ho; Lee, Geum-San; Kim, Hyung-Woo; Kim, Bu-Yeo; Yun, Yeo-Choong; Cho, Su-In
  Abstract Purpose: The present study was carried out to determine if Paljeong-san extract (PJS) treatment exerts beneficial effect against the glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rabbits. Material and Method: PJS was selected in the basis of invigorating kidney which can eliminate pathogens. Rabbits were treated with PJS pharmacopuncture on Shin-shu () point for 5 days right after the injection of 50% concentration of glycerol ( body weight). Results and Conclusions: Glycerol injection caused an increase in serum creatinine and BUN level and urine glucose secretion, which were accompanied by a reduction in GFR. PJS Pharmacopuncture treatment combined with peritoneal injection showed beneficial effect on glycerol-induced acute renal failure by inhibition of serum creatinine increase and GFR decrease.
6 Title
Keywords pharmacopunctuology; Korean traditional medicine; pharmacopuncture; standardized education system
Author(s) Kim, Byung-Woo; Lim, Chung-San; Choi, Ga-Young; Kang, Dae-In; Lee, Hee-Choon; Kim, Hyun-Do; Kwon, Ki-Rok
  Abstract Objectives: This investigation was conducted to evaluate current education status of pharmacopuncture in Korean traditional medicine schools and suggest improvement in the structure of pharmacopuncture education. Methods: Among the eleven Korean traditional medicine schools in the country, six schools participated in the survey. 252 students in fifth and sixth year whom have finished pharmacopuncture studies completed were given questionnaire developed for the purpose and survey results were analyzed. Results : 1. For the question pertaining to the text used for the pharmacopuncture lecture, a significant difference was witnessed suggesting that few schools were not utilizing common textbooks. 2. For the item pertaining to the lecture progression, each school showed significant difference and student satisfaction rate differed vastly between schools. 3. Lecture hours and lecture materials were also significantly different between schools and overall satisfaction rate was low. 4. All of students participated in the survey had high expectation in the clinical applications of pharmacopuncture treatment. Conclusions: Above findings indicate that students at Korean traditional medicine schools throughout the nation have high expectation for pharmacopuncture, but lack of standardized education system and materials and qualified instructors calls for immediate modification in the education of pharmacopuncture studies.
7 Title
Keywords PMS; Pharmacopuncture; Safety; Efficacy; Survey
Author(s) Hong, Kwon-Eui
  Abstract This study was done in order to present clinical trial method for safety and efficacy of Pharmacopuncture. The results were summarized as follow: Objective : The purpose of this study is to verify about safety and effectiveness of pharmacopuncture. Methods : We use questionnaire created by expert group. Survey was conducted to target clinicians who using pharmacopuncture more then 5 years. Results & Conclusion : Pharmacopuncture is effective. and that is widely used in the musculoskeletal diseases. but treatment method has not been organized to objectivity. Some pharmacopuncture causes specific symptoms, but no serious side effects. Generally, pharmacopuncture is effective and safety.
8 Title
Keywords Sweet BV; Itching; immune response
Author(s) Choi, Seok-Woo; Choi, Se-Un; Oh, Sung-Jong
  Abstract Objectives : This study is to report the percentage of localized itching which occurred, when we injected to patients with Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV). Methods : We investigated 374 patients who had injected with Sweet BV in our clinic from February 15. 2009 to April 30, 2010. We checked the number and percentage of patients who occured localized itching on injection area. Then we analyzed those according to times in treatment, the body parts of injection and treatment dosage. Results and Conclusion : Localized itching was lower by 1.60% in the first treatment with Sweet BV. However localized itching was 12.83% in the whole course of treatment, which showed a similar incidence of 13% in Bee Venom. Therefore it can be interpreted that Sweet BV may help suppress the immune responses such as itching in the initial treatment, but the occurrence of local immune responses of Sweet BV may be similar to that of Bee Venom in continued treatment. We suppose that we should be careful of the occurrence of local immune responses as Bee Venom at least until the fourth treatment in clinical application with Sweet BV, although localized itching did not occur in the first treatment. Also we should be careful of treatment with Sweet BV in body parts, such as wrist, hand, chest and abdominal, because the percentage of localized itching was relatively high in those parts.
9 Title
Keywords Knee joint pain; Rubiae Radix; Pharmacopuncture; Korean medicine
Author(s) Lee, Jin-Bok; Cho, Yi-Hyun; Im, Jeong-Gyun; Kim, Jong-Uk; Yook, Tae-Han; Song, Beom-Yong
  Abstract Objective : This study was to investigate the clinical effect of Rubiae Radix pharmacopuncture on knee joint pain. Methods : The patients were treated by Rubiae Radix pharmacopuncture, Acupuncture, herbal medicine. To evaluate the effect of the treatment, The patient's symptoms were assessed by Visual Analogue Scale(VAS) Score, Knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score(KOOS) and physical examinations. Results : In all cases, the pain was reduced significantly according to improvement of VAS score, KOOS and active Range Of Motion(ROM) of knee joint. VAS score and KOOS of all cases were decreased. In two cases, ROM of knee joint has improved. But in one case, ROM of knee joint has still been restricted. But there are no noticeable changes in physical examinations. Conclusion : These results suggest that Rubiae Radix pharmacopuncture might be an effective method to treat patients with knee joint pain. But, It's necessary to have more observations and experiments with Rubiae Radix pharmacopuncture.