• [Archive]
  • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
  • pISSN : 2093-6966
  • eISSN : 2234-6856
  • DB Construction : 59 Issues, 667 Articles
1 Title
Keywords aqua-acupuncture, Cervidae, deer antler, Korean medicine, pharmacopuncture, review
Author(s) Dong-Jin Lee, Min Hwangbo, Kang Kwon, Hyung-Sik Seo
  Abstract Objective: The endpoint of this review is to investigate existing studies of Cervi cornu parvum (CCP) pharmacopuncture within Korean medicine journals in order to present a better research method in the future. Methods: We searched all the papers through six Korean electrical databases that included the title of "Cervi cornu parvum pharmacopuncture" or "Cervi cornu parvum aqua-acupuncture". Articles that had been published until December 2012 were largely divided into experimental studies and clinical studies. Results: Fifty-three (53) experimental studies and six clinical studies were found. The number of published articles has been constantly increasing. Many of the experimental studies demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects for arthritis, and most of the clinical studies dealt with musculoskeletal problems. Conclusion: Various therapeutically significant effects of the CCP pharmacopuncture have been found through this review; however, more systematic clinical studies on the CCP pharmacopuncture seem to be necessary to substantially support its clinical effects.
2 Title
Keywords anti-bacterial activity, herbal medicine, minimum inhibitory concentration, plant aqueous extract, synergistic effects, zone of inhibition
Author(s) Mehrab Dashtdar, Mohammad Reza Dashtdar, Babak Dashtdar, Mohammad khabaz shirazi, Saeed Ahmad Khan
  Abstract Objective: Evaluations of the in-vitro anti-bacterial activities of aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu (L.F.)Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and Shilajita mumiyo against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) are reasonable since these ethnomedicinal plants have been used in Persian folk medicine for treating skin diseases, venereal diseases, respiratory problems and nervous disorders for ages. Methods: The well diffusion method (KB testing) with a concentration of 250 μg/disc was used for evaluating the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC). Maximum synergistic effects of different combinations of components were also observed. Results: A particular combination of Acacia catechu (L.F.) Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and shilajita mumiyo extracts possesses an outstanding anti-bacterial activity. It's inhibiting effect on microorganisms is significant when compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive microorganism. The highest antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia) or gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was exerted by formula number 2 (table 1). Conclusion: The results reveal the presence of antibacterial activities of Acacia catechu, Castanea sativa husk, Ephedra sp. and Mumiyo against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Synergistic effects in a combined formula, especially in formula number 2 (ASLANⓇ) can lead to potential sources of new antiseptic agents for treatment of acute or chronic skin ulcers. These results considering the significant antibacterial effect of the present formulation, support ethnopharmacological uses against diarrheal and venereal diseases and demonstrate use of these plants to treat infectious diseases.
3 Title
Keywords ankle joint disorders, Cerebrolysin, neuromotor system disease, pharmacopuncture, physical disability, scolisis
Author(s) Zohidjon Ismailov N, Jun-Sang Yu
  Abstract Objective: This research was performed to investigate the efficacy of complex rehabilitation combined with pharmacopuncture treatment for the children with neuromotor system diseases. Methods: Fifty (50) patients aged from 5 to 15 yr old were compared. Twenty (20) patients received conventional treatments and complex rehabilitation as a control group, and fifty (50) patients received complex rehabilitation with pharmacopuncture. At their first visits, the patients had checkups and neurological scales, and after 10 days of pharmacopuncture treatments and 55 days of rehabilitation, they also took neurological scales. We studied the pre and post effects of the treatment group. Results: The number of patients with ankle joint disorder and contracture, knee joint contracture, steppage, horsey hoof, shoulder weakness and contracture, radio-carpal joint disorder and contracture, arm hypotrophia, arm atrophia, leg hypotrophia and total atrophia decreased after treatments. Conclusion: This study showed the efficacy of pharmacopuncture combined with complex rehabilitation for the treatment of neuromotor system diseases.
4 Title
Keywords D-amino acid oxidase, DAO, single-dose toxicity, toxicity test, LD50, injection
Author(s) Jungue Kang, Eun-yong Lee, Bong-Keun Song, Seung-Deok Lee, Tae-Han Yook, Seong-Hun Ahn, Il-Hong Son, Sungchul Kim
  Abstract Objective: This study was performed to analyze the single-dose toxicity of D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) extracts. Methods: All experiments were conducted at the Korea Testing & Research Institute (KTR), an institution authorized to perform non-clinical studies, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the pilot study. Doses of DAAO extracts, 0.1 to 0.3 cc, were administered to the experimental group, and the same doses of normal saline solution were administered to the control group. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: In all 4 groups, no deaths occurred, and the LD50 of DAAO extracts administered by IV was over 0.3 ml/kg. No significant changes in the weight between the control group and the experimental group were observed. To check for abnormalities in organs and tissues, we used microscopy to examine representative histological sections of each specified organ, the results showed no significant differences in any organs or tissues. Conclusion: The above findings suggest that treatment with D-amino acid oxidase extracts is relatively safe. Further studies on this subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidence.
5 Title
Keywords amino acid, buthus martensii karsch, herbal medicine, pharmacopuncture, scorpion, scorpion tail
Author(s) Jin-Ho Lee, Joon-Shik Shin, Eun-Hya Chi, In-Hee Lee
  Abstract Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the amino-acid compositions of pharmacopuncture extracts taken from the body and from the tail of Buthus martensii Karsch, which are frequently prescribed in Oriental medicine. Methods: Amino acids in hot water and 70% ethanol extracts taken from the scorpion’s whole body and from its tail were screened by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The experiments were performed with linearity, precision and accuracy. Results: The results of the amino-acid-composition analysis showed that the Buthus martensii Karsch extracts contained various amino acids such as aspartic acid, histidine, alanine, tyrosine, and cystine. The amino-acid analysis showed that the hot water extract was more beneficial than the ethanol extract, except for histidine. The amino acids from the tail and the body of the scorpion were compared, and the concentration of aspartic acid in the extract from the scorpion’s tail was two times that found in the extract from its body. The results of validation experiments were all satisfactory. Conclusion: Studies on the ingredients in extracts from a scorpion other than buthotoxin may demonstrate that the antiepileptic efficacy, anticancer activity, antithrombotic action and analgesic effect are enhanced. Using only the tail of the scorpion when pharmacopuncture is dispensed may be beneficial because the extracts from the tail of the scorpion have higher potency than those from the whole body.
6 Title
Keywords allergy, dermatitis, inflammation, skin, Ulmus davidiana
Author(s) Jeonghyeon Lyu, Byung-Joo Kim, Hyungwoo Kim
  Abstract Objective: The root bark of Ulmus davidiana var. Japonica (Ulmi Radicis cortex, URC) is a medicinal herb used for promoting diuresis and treating dampness. In Korea, URC has long been used as an efficacious therapy for inflammation, burns, frostbite and skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis. Methods: In the present study, we used 1-fluoro-2,4- dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact dermatitis (CD) mouse model to investigate the antiallergic and the anti-inflammatory effects of URC on skin lesion, histopathological changes and specific antibody production. Results: URC treatment, 10 mg/mL, effectively inhibited skin lesions induced by repeated paintings with DNFB. In the histopathological observation, topical application of URC inhibited spongiosis. In addition, URC lowered the production levels of total immunoglobulin and IgG2a in serum. Conclusion: These data indicate that URC has an anti- inflammatory effect that produces an improvement of skin lesions in CD mice.
7 Title
Keywords Fibrin(ogen)olytic enzyme, Gloydius blomhoffii siniticus, serine proteinase, snake venom
Author(s) Suk-Ho Choi, Seung-Bae Lee
  Abstract Objective: This study was undertaken to isolate a fibrin(ogen)olytic enzyme from the snake venom of Gloydius blomhoffii siniticus and to investigate the enzymatic characteristics and hemorrhagic activity of the isolated enzyme as a potential pharmacopuncture agent. Methods: The fibrinolytic enzyme was isolated by using chromatography, sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and fibrin plate assay. The characteristics of the enzyme were determined by using fibrin plate assay, protein hydrolysis analysis, and hemorrhage assay. Its amino acid composition was determined. Results: The fibrin(ogen)olytic enzyme with the molecular weight of 27 kDa (FE-27kDa) isolated from G. b. siniticus venom consisted of two heterogenous disulfide bond-linked polypeptides with the molecular weights of 15 kDa and 18 kDa. When more than 20 μg of FE-27kDa was applied on the fibrin plate, fibrinolysis zone was formed a indicating its fibrinolytic activity. The fibrinolytic activity was inhibited completely by phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride (PMSF) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and partially by thiothreitol and cysteine. Metal ions such as Hg2+ and Fe2+ inhibited the fibrinolytic activity completely, but Mn2+ did not. FE-27kDa preferentially hydrolyzed α-chain of fibrinogen and slowly hydrolyzed β-chain, but did not hydrolyze γ-chain. High-molecular-weight polypeptides of gelatin were hydrolyzed partially into polypeptides with molecular weights of more than 45 kDa. A dosage of more than 10 μg of FE- 27kDa per mouse was required to induce hemorrhage beneath the skin. Conclusion: FE-27kDa was a serine proteinase consisting of two heterogeneous polypeptides, hydrolyzed fibrin, fibrinogen, and gelatin, and caused hemorrhage beneath the skin of mouse. This study suggests that the potential of FE-27kDa as pharmacopuncture agent should be limited due to low fibrinolytic activity and a possible side effect of hemorrhage.
8 Title
Keywords AGS cells, apoptosis, gastric cancer, transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) channel, Ulmi Pumilae Cortex
Author(s) Bora Lim, Hee Jung Lee, Min Chul Kim, Byung Joo Kim
  Abstract Objective: Ulmi Pumilae Cortex (UPC) is a deciduous tree with uneven pinnate leaves and is classified as a subfamily of Ulmuceae and contains many pharmacologically active constituents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of UPC on the growth and survival of AGS cells, the most common human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. Methods: The AGS cells were treated with varying concentrations of UPC. Analyses of the sub G1, caspase-3 activity, and mitochondrial depolarization were conducted to determine whether AGS cell death occured by apoptosis. Furthermore, to identify the role of the transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) 7 channels in AGS cell growth and survival, we used human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells overexpressed with TRPM7 channels. Results: The addition of UPC to a culture medium inhibited AGS cell growth and survival. Experimental results showed that the sub G1, caspase-3 activity, and mitochondrial depolarization were increased. Furthermore, TRPM7 channel overexpression in HEK 293 cells exacerbated UPC-induced cell death. Conclusion: These findings indicate that UPC inhibits the growth and survival of gastric cancer cells due to a blockade of the TRPM7 channel activity. Therefore, UPC is a potential drug for treatment of gastric cancer, and TRPM7 channels may play an important role in survival in cases of gastric cancer.