• [Archive]
  • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
  • pISSN : 2093-6966
  • eISSN : 2234-6856
  • DB Construction : 59 Issues, 667 Articles
1 Title
Keywords ultra-highly-diluted remedy, Condurango 30C, histone deacetylase activity, HDAC2, cell cycle
Author(s) Kausik Bishayee, Sourav Sikdar, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh
  Abstract Objectives: Whether the ultra-highly-diluted remedies used in homeopathy can effectively bring about modulations of gene expressions through acetylation/deacetylation of histones has not been explored. Therefore, in this study, we pointedly checked if the homeopathically-diluted anti-cancer remedy Condurango 30C (ethanolic extract of Gonolobus condurango diluted 10-60 times) was capable of arresting the cell cycles in cervical cancer cells HeLa by triggering an epigenetic modification through modulation of the activity of the key enzyme histone deacetylase 2 vis-a-vis the succussed alcohol (placebo) control. Methods: We checked the activity of different signal proteins (like p21WAF, p53, Akt, STAT3) related to deacetylation, cell growth and differentiation by western blotting and analyzed cell-cycle arrest, if any, by fluorescence activated cell sorting. After viability assays had been performed with Condurango 30C and with a placebo, the activities of histone de-acetylase (HDAC) enzymes 1 and 2 were measured colorimetrically. Results: While Condurango 30C induced cytotoxicity in HeLa cells in vitro and reduced HDAC2 activity quite strikingly, it apparently did not alter the HDAC1 enzyme; the placebo had no or negligible cytotoxicity against HeLa cells and could not alter either the HDAC 1 or 2 activity. Data on p21WAF, p53, Akt, and STAT3 activities and a cell-cycle analysis revealed a reduction in DNA synthesis and G1-phase cell-cycle arrest when Condurango 30C was used at a 2% dose. Conclusion: Condurango 30C appeared to trigger key epigenetic events of gene modulation in effectively combating cancer cells, which the placebo was unable to do.
2 Title
Keywords Diabetes, alternative therapy, integrative medicine, herbal medicine, TCAM
Author(s) Mehrab Dashtdar, Mohammad Reza Dashtdar, Babak Dashtdar, Saeed Ahmad Khan
  Abstract Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine how an integrated approach to type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment could improve glycemic control and immune-potentiating activities adherent to oral hypoglycemic agents along with a botanical compound, among primary care patients. Methods: In this study, we used the self-control and the group-control methods. Candidates meeting the trial conditions were selected from among volunteers who had taken the test substance for 45 days. During the trial, all groups were on a controlled diet; neither were the original medications nor their dosages changed. Results: The results showed that the botanical compound (Glyco-Persica®) significantly reduced the main clinical symptoms in diabetes type 2. In the treatment group, 36 of 52 patients (69.23%) and in the control group 10 of 52 patients (19.23%) showed reduced symptoms, and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The fasting blood sugar in the treatment group after treatment compared with that before treatment and with that in the control group after treatment was statistically different (P < 0.05). The post-prandial glucose in the treatment group after treatment was significantly different from that before treatment and from that in the control group after treatment (P < 0.05); the post-prandial blood sugar in the treatment group was reduced by 8.98%. Conclusions: The results revealed that the botanical compound (Glyco-Persica®) has significant hypoglycemic properties which affect main clinical symptoms in diabetes type 2. Body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, routine blood, stool and urine tests showed no meaningful negative changes after the course of treatment. There was no significant adverse reaction during the trial.
3 Title
Keywords anti-inflammatory pharmacopuncture, intramuscular toxicity test, eight-principle pharmacopuncture
Author(s) Da-jung Jung, Sung-chul Kim, Hyung-geol Lee, Yoo-min Choi, Min-seop Sin, Seok-woo Choi, Seung-won Hong, Beom-yong Song, Jong-uk Kim, Tae-han Yook
  Abstract Objectives: This study was performed to analyze the toxicity of the test substance, anti-inflammatory pharmacopuncture (AIP), when used as a single intramuscular-dose in 6-week-old, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats and to find the lethal dose. Methods: The experiment was conducted at Biotoxtech according to Good Laboratory Practices. Twenty (20) female and 20 male Spague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups of five 5 female and 5 male animals per group. The rats in the three experimental groups received single intramuscular injections with 0.1-㎖, 0.5-㎖ and 1.0-㎖/animal doses of AIP, Groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and the control group, Group 1, received a single intramuscular injection with a 1.0-㎖ dose of normal saline. Clinical signs were observed and body weight measurements were carried out for 14 days following the injections. At the end of the observation period, hematology, clinical chemistry, histopathological tests and necropsy were performed on the injected parts. Results: No deaths occurred in any of the groups. Also, histopathological tests showed that AIP had no effect on the injected parts in terms of clinical signs, body weight, hematology, clinical chemistry, and necropsy. Conclusions: As a result of single intramuscular-dose tests of the test substance AIP in 4 groups of rats, the lethal dose for both males and females exceeded 1.0㎖/animal. Therefore, AIP is a relatively safe pharmacopuncture that can be used for treatment, but further studies should be performed.
4 Title
Keywords Calculus Bovis-Fel Uris-Moschus, fengfu, pharmacopuncture, cerebrovascular circulation, hemodynamics
Author(s) Soo-Jung Park, Ho-Young Lee, Na-Rae Choi, Young-Mi Kwon, Jong-Cheon Joo
  Abstract Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the effects of Calculus Bovis-Fel Uris-Moschus pharmacopuncture (BUM) on the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and the mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) in normal and cerebral ischemic rats and to investigate a possible pathway involved in the effects of BUM. Methods: The changes in the rCBF and the MABP following BUM into Fengfu (GV16) were determined by using a laser-Doppler flow meter and a pressure transducer, respectively. Results: BUM significantly increased the rCBF and decreased the MABP in normal rats in a dose-dependent manner. The effect on the rCBF was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with methylene blue (0.01 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, but was not affected by pretreatment with indomethacin (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase. The BUM-induced decrease of the MABP was changed neither by methylene blue nor by indomethacin pretreatment. In the cerebral ischemic rats, the rCBF was stably increased upon cerebral reperfusion in the BUM group in contrast to the rapid and marked increase in the control group. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that BUM into Fengbu (GV16) increased the rCBF in a dose-dependent manner in the normal state; furthermore, it improved the stability of the rCBF in the ischemic state upon reperfusion. Also, the effects of BUM on the rCBF were attenuated by inhibition of guanylate cyclase, suggesting that the effects involved the guanylate cyclase pathway.
5 Title
Keywords interstitial cells of Cajal, Shengmaisan, traditional Chinese medicine, gastrointestinal motility
Author(s) Byung Joo Kim
  Abstract Objectives: Shengmaisan (SMS) is a traditional Chinese medicine prescription widely used for the treatment of diverse organs in Korea. The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are pacemaker cells that play an important role in the generation of coordinated gastrointestinal (GI) motility. We have aimed to investigate the effects of SMS in the ICCs in the mouse small intestine. Methods: To dissociate the ICCs, we used enzymatic digestions from the small intestine in a mouse. After that, the ICCs were identified immunologically by using the anti-c-kit antibody. In the ICCs, the electrophysiological whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record pacemaker potentials in the cultured ICCs. Results: The ICCs generated pacemaker potentials in the mouse small intestine. SMS produced membrane depolarization with concentration-dependent manners in the current clamp mode. Pretreatment with a Ca2+ free solution and thapsigargin, a Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor in the endoplasmic reticulum, stopped the generation of the pacemaker potentials. In the case of Ca2+-free solutions, SMS induced membrane depolarizations. However, when thapsigargin in a bath solution was applied, the membrane depolarization was not produced by SMS. The membrane depolarizations produced by SMS were inhibited by U-73122, an active phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitors. Furthermore, chelerythrine and calphostin C, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors had no effects on SMS-induced membrane depolarizations. Conclusions: These results suggest that SMS might affect GI motility by modulating the pacemaker activity through an internal Ca2+- and PLC-dependent and PKC-independent pathway in the ICCs.
6 Title
Keywords bee venom, sweet bee venom, skin test, Sasang constitution, sexual difference
Author(s) Chaeweon Kim, Kwangho Lee
  Abstract Objectives: The current study was performed to compare the bee venom pharmacopuncture skin test reactions among groups with different sexes and Sasang constitutions. Methods: Between July 2012 and June 2013, all 76 patients who underwent bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests and Sasang constitution diagnoses at Oriental Medicine Hospital of Sangji University were included in this study. The skin test was performed on the patient’s forearm intracutaneously with 0.05 ml of sweet bee venom (SBV) on their first visit. If the patients showed a positive response, the test was discontinued. On the other hand, if the patient showed a negative response, the test was performed on the opposite forearm intracutaneously with 0.05 ml of bee venom pharmacopuncture 25% on the next day or the next visit. Three groups were made to compare the differences in the bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests according to sexual difference and Sasang constitution: group A showed a positive response to SBV, group B showed a positive response to bee venom pharmacopuncture 25%, and group C showed a negative response on all bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests. Fisher’s exact test was performed to evaluate the differences statistically. Results: The results of the bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests showed no significant differences according to Sasang constitution (P = 0.300) or sexual difference (P = 0.163). Conclusion: No significant differences on the results of bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests were observed according to two factors, Sasang constitution and the sexual difference.
7 Title
Keywords essential tremor, acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, eight-principle pharmacopuncture, Sa-am five-element acupuncture
Author(s) Jong-Jin Jeong, Seung-Ho Sun
  Abstract The purpose of this study was to report the effect of a combination of Sa-am five-element acupuncture and eight-principle pharmacopuncture (EPP) for the treatment of an essential tremor (ET). This study reviewed the medical records treated at OO Korean medical hospital for ET by using diverse types of acupuncture without herbal medicine, other types of physical therapy, and western medication related ET or Parkinson’s disease and was performed after the approval of the institutional review board (IRB). The three cases that were finally selected were then extracted and reviewed. The three cases that were finally selected involved three women in their 70s to 80s. The evaluation of the progress was made by using the numeric rating scale. A combined treatment, the method of liver excess (肝乘格), from among Sa-am five-element acupuncture, and Hwangyeonhaedoktang EPP at CV23 and CV17, was applied to all cases. In all three cases, the ET was improved, and recurred ETs improved with the same treatment. The results suggest that the combined treatment of Sa-am five-element acupuncture and Hwangyeonhaedoktang EPP may be effective for treating an ET, even though this conclusion is based on only three cases.