• [Archive]
  • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
  • pISSN : 2093-6966
  • eISSN : 2234-6856
  • DB Construction : 59 Issues, 667 Articles
1 Title
Keywords anti-inflammation, antioxidant activity, hot aqueous extract, Korean medicine, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix
Author(s) In Ho Yeo, Cham Kyul Lee, Eun Yong Lee
  Abstract Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix hot aqueous extract on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging in macrophages. Methods: Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix (300 g) was heated at 100℃ with distilled water (2 L) for 4 hours. The extract was filtered and concentrated to 100 mL by using a rotary evaporator, was frozen at -80℃, and was then freeze-dried by using a freezing-drying system. The RAW 264.7 macrophage was subcultured by using 10-㎍/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In order to evaluate cytotoxicity, we performed (3-(4,5-dimrthylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assays and measured the cell viability. The NO production was measured by using Griess assays, and the PGE2 production was measured by using enzyme immunoassays. The antioxidant activity, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging capability, was measured by using the DPPH method. Results: Cell viability with the 1-, 5-, 25-, 125- and 625-㎍/mL Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix hot aqueous extract was not significantly decreased compared to the cell viability without the extract. When 125 and 625 ㎍/mL of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix hot aqueous extract were used, nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages was significantly inhibited compared to that in the control group. When 25, 125, and 625 ㎍/mL of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix hot aqueous extract were used, PGE2 production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages was significantly inhibited compared to that in the control group. The 125- and 625-㎍/mL Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix hot aqueous extracts had high DPPH free-radical scavenging capabilities in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Conclusion: This study indicates that Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix hot aqueous extract suppresses NO and PGE2 production and improves DPPH free-radical scavenging capability. Thus, it seems that Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix hot aqueous extract may have an anti-inflammation effect and antioxidant activity.
2 Title
Keywords Wattakaka volubilis, petroleum ether cold maceration extract, streptozotocin, liver, scanning electron microscopy
Author(s) Velmani Gopal, Vivekananda Mandal, Sumpam Tangjang, Subhash C. Mandal
  Abstract Objectives: The present study investigated the protective effect of Wattakaka (W.) volubilis leaf extract against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (with six rats in each group) and were fed ad libitum. The rats were fasted for sixteen hours before diabetes was induced by injecting a single dose of 90 mg/kg body weight of STZ in 0.9-percent normal saline through an intraperitoneal route. The five groups were as follows: Group 1: normal control (saline-treated), Group 2: untreated diabetic rats, Groups 3 and 4: diabetic rats treated orally with petroleum ether cold maceration extract (PEME) of W. volubilis (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight), and Group 5: diabetic rats treated orally with metformin (250 mg/kg body weight). All rats received treatment for 21 days. For the STZ-induced diabetic rats, the blood-glucose, α-amylase, total protein and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were measured on days 7, 14 and 21 of the treatment with PEME of W. volubilis and the treatment with metformin. Histopathological changes in the liver were examined with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Morphological changes in the liver were also examined with glutaraldehyde fixation. Results: The treatments with PEME of W. volubilis and with metformin in experimental rats by oral injections for 21 days produced reductions in the levels of serum biochemical markers. Histopathology and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the administrations of PEME of W. volubilis and of metformin suppressed the generation of abnormal liver cells in the STZ-treated rats. Conclusion: These results suggest that both PEME of W. volubilis and metformin have a protective effect against STZ-induced diabetes.
3 Title
Keywords cancer coagulation, cancer immunity, fibrinogen, natural killer cells, Korean medicine, complementary alternative medicine
Author(s) Jeungwon Yoon, Chong-Kwan Cho, Ji-Eun Shin, Hwa-Seung Yoo
  Abstract Objectives: The study aimed to determine changes in laboratory data for cancer patients receiving Korean medicine (KM) care, with a focus on patients’ functional status, cancer-coagulation factors and cancer immunity. Methods: We conducted an observational study of various cancer patients in all stages admitted to the East-West Cancer Center (EWCC), Dunsan Korean Hospital of Daejeon University, from Mar. 2011 to Aug. 2011. All patients were under the center’s multi-modality Korean-medicine-based inpatient cancer care program. The hospitalization stay at EWCC ranged from 9 to 34 days. A total of 80 patients were followed in their routine hematologic laboratory screenings performed before and after hospitalization. Patients were divided into three groups depending on the status of their treatment: prevention of recurrence and metastasis group, KM treatment only group, and combination of conventional and KM treatment group. The lab reports included natural killer cell count (CD16 + CD56), fibrinogen, white blood cell (WBC), lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophil, red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin, platelet, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status. Results: With a Focus on patients’ functional status, cancer-coagulation factors and cancer immunity, emphasis was placed on the NK cell count, fibrinogen count, and ECOG scores. Data generally revealed decreased fibrinogen count, fluctuating NK cell count and decreased ECOG, meaning improved performance status in all groups. The KM treatment only group showed the largest decrease in mean fibrinogen count and the largest increase in mean NK cell count. However, the group’s ECOG score showed the smallest decrease, which may be due to the concentration of late-cancer-stage patients in that particular group. Conclusions: Multi-modality KM inpatient care may have positive effect on lowering the cancer coagulation factor fibrinogen, but its correlation with the change in the NK cell count is not clear.
4 Title
Keywords Carthamus tinctorious L., Cathami Semen, Carthmi-Flos herbal acupuncture, Water soluble Carthmi-Flos herbal acupuncture , pharmacopuncture, intramuscular toxicity test
Author(s) Hyung-geol Lee, Sungchul Kim, Da-jung Jung, Yoo-min Choi, Min-seop Sin, Seok-Woo Choi, Beom-yong Song, Jong-uk Kim, Seung-won Hong, Tae-han Yook
  Abstract Objectives: This experiment was conducted to examine the toxicity of Water soluble Carthmi-Flos herbal acupuncture (WCF) by administering a single intramuscular dose of WCF in 6-week-old, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats and to find the lethality dose for WCF. Methods: The experiment was conducted at Biotoxtech according to Good Laboratory Practices under a request by the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute. This experiment was performed based on the testing standards of “Toxicity Test Standards for Drugs” by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Subjects were divided into 4 groups: 1 control group in which normal saline was administered and 3 test groups in which 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 mL of WCF was administered; a single intramuscular dose was injected into 5 males and 5 females in each group. General symptoms and body weights were observed/measured for 14 days after injection. At the end of the observation period, hematological and clinical chemistry tests were performed, followed by necropsy and histopathological examinations of the injected sections. Results: No mortalities were observed in any group. Also, symptoms, body weight, hematology, clinical chemistry and necropsy were not affected. However, histopathological examination of the injected part in one female in the 1.0-mL group showed infiltration of mononuclear cells and a multi-nucleated giant cell around eosinophilic material. Conclusion: Administration of single intramuscular doses of WCF in 3 groups of rats showed that the approximate lethal dose of WCF for all rats was in excess of 1.0 mL, as no mortalities were observed for injections up to and including 1.0 mL.
5 Title
Keywords Chukyu (spine-healing) pharmacopuncture, toxicity test
Author(s) Hohyun Jeong, Seung-Hun Cho, Eun-Yong Lee, Seung-Deok Lee, Seong-Hun Ahn, Sungchul Kim
  Abstract Objectives: This study was performed to analyze the single dose toxicity of Chukyu (spine-healing) pharmacopuncture. Methods: All experiments were conducted at the Biotoxtech, an institution authorized to perform non-clinical studies under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations. Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the pilot study. Doses of Chukyu (spine-healing) pharmacopuncture, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mL, were administered to the experimental groups, and a dose of normal saline solution, 1.0 mL, was administered to the control group. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethic Committee. Results: No deaths or abnormalities occurred in any of the four groups. No significant changes in weight, hematological parameters or clinical chemistry between the control group and the experimental groups were observed. To check for abnormalities in organs and tissues, we used microscopy to examine representative histological sections of each specified organ; the results showed no significant differences in any of the organs or tissues except in one case, where interstitial infiltrating macrophages were found in one female rat in the 0.5-mL/animal experimental group. Conclusion: The above findings suggest that treatment with Chukyu (spine-healing) pharmacopuncture is relatively safe. Further studies on this subject are needed to yield more concrete evidence.
6 Title
Keywords fibrinolytic enzyme, metalloprotease, Gloydius blomhoffii siniticus, snake venom
Author(s) Joung-Yoon Kim, Seung-Bae Lee, Ki Rok Kwon, Suk-Ho Choi
  Abstract Objectives: This study was undertaken to isolate a fibrinolytic enzyme from the snake venom of Gloydius blomhoffii siniticus and to investigate its enzymatic characteristics and hemorrhagic activity as a potential pharmacopuncture agent. Methods: The fibrinolytic enzyme was isolated by using chromatography, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and fibrin plate assay. The characteristics of the enzyme were investigated using fibrin plate assay, protein hydrolysis analysis, and hemorrhage assay. Its amino acid composition was determined. Results: The fibrinolytic enzyme with the molecular weight of 32kDa (FE-32kDa) from Gloydius blomhoffii siniticus showed a fibrin hydrolysis zone at the concentration of 0.2 mg/mL in the fibrin plate assay. The fibrin hydrolysis activity of the enzyme was inhibited completely by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), ethyleneglycoltetraacetic acid (EGTA), and 1, 10-phenanthroline, thiothreitol and cysteine, and partially by phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride (PMSF). Metal ions such as Fe2+ and Hg2+ inhibited the fibrin hydrolysis completely, but Zn2+ enhanced it. FE-32kDa hydrolyzed α-chain but did not hydrolyze β-chain and γ-chain of fibrinogen. High-molecular-weight polypeptides of gelatin were hydrolyzed partially into low-molecular-weight polypeptides, but the extent of hydrolysis was limited. FE-32kDa induced hemorrhage beneath back skin of mice at the dose of 2 μg. Conclusions: FE-32kDa is a α-fibrin(ogen)olytic metalloprotease that requires Zn2+ for fibrinolytic activity and causes hemorrhage, suggesting that the enzyme is not appropriate for use as a clinical pharmacopuncture.
7 Title
Keywords Guseonwangdo-go, intramuscular toxicity, pharmacopuncture, single-dose toxicity
Author(s) Su-jeong Jo, Sung-chul Kim, Yu-jong Kim, Eun-jung Kim, Kap-sung Kim, Seung-deok Lee
  Abstract Objectives: This study was performed to analyze single-dose intramuscular toxicity of Guseonwangdo-go glucose pharmacopuncture. Methods: Eighty six-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two large groups of forty rats; Guseonwangdo-go glucose 5% and Guseonwangdo-go glucose 20% groups. Each group was sub-divided into four smaller groups of five males and five females, with the following dosages of pharmacopuncture being administered by intramuscular (IM) injection in each group: group 1 (G1, control group): 1.0 mL of normal saline solution, group 2 (G2, low-dose group): 0.1 mL, group 3 (G3, mid-dose group): 0.5 mL, and group 4 (G4, high-dose group): 1.0 mL. Results: No mortalities or clinical signs were observed in any group. Also, no significant changes in body weights or in hematological/biochemical analyses were observed between the control and the experimental groups during necropsy or histopathology. Conclusion: The above findings suggest that the lethal dose of Guseonwangdo-go glucose 5% and 20% pharmacopuncture administered via IM injection is more than 1.0 mL per animal in both male and female rats. Further studies on the repeated-dose toxicity of Guseonwangdo-go glucose should be conducted to yield more concrete data.
8 Title
Keywords apoptosis, Condurango 6C and 30C, caspase-3, homeopathy, non-small-cell lung cancer (H460), reactive oxygen species
Author(s) Sourav Sikdar, Santu Kumar Saha, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh
  Abstract Objectives: In homeopathy, it is claimed that more homeopathically-diluted potencies render more protective/curative effects against any disease condition. Potentized forms of Condurango are used successfully to treat digestive problems, as well as esophageal and stomach cancers. However, the comparative efficacies of Condurango 6C and 30C, one diluted below and one above Avogadro’s limit (lacking original drug molecule), respectively, have not been critically analyzed for their cell-killing (apoptosis) efficacy against lung cancer cells in vitro, and signalling cascades have not been studied. Hence, the present study was undertaken. Methods: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenylte- trazolium bromide (MTT) assays were conducted on H460-non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells by using a succussed ethyl alcohol vehicle (placebo) as a control. Studies on cellular morphology, cell cycle regulation, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and DNA-damage were made, and expressions of related signaling markers were studied. The observations were done in a “blinded” manner. Results: Both Condurango 6C and 30C induced apoptosis via cell cycle arrest at subG0/G1 and altered expressions of certain apoptotic markers significantly in H460 cells. The drugs induced oxidative stress through ROS elevation and MMP depolarization at 18-24 hours. These events presumably activated a caspase-3-mediated signalling cascade, as evidenced by reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot and immunofluorescence studies at a late phase (48 hours) in which cells were pushed towards apoptosis. Conclusion: Condurango 30C had greater apoptotic effect than Condurango 6C as claimed in the homeopathic doctrine.
9 Title
Keywords dangerous depth, governor vessel meridian 15, magnetic resonance imaging, safety depth, Yamen
Author(s) Soo-Jung Park, Ming Jin, Jong-Cheon Joo, Young-Mi Kwon
  Abstract Objectives: Yamen is the fifteenth acupoint of the Governor Vessel Meridian (GV15). It is anatomically close to the medulla oblongata, so finding the safety depth of the acupoint is very important. However, few studies on the safety depth of GV15 have been done. Methods: This study tried to measure the safety depth of GV15 by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and to analyze the factors affecting the safety depth through multiple regression analyses. This study was carried out for patients who had a brain MRI scan while visiting Jeonju Wonkwang Hospital, Korea. The shortest distance between the glabella and the occipital protuberance (DGO), the horizontal distance between the glabella and the back of the head (DGB) and the dangerous depth (DD) were measured from the sagittal views of the MRI images. The DD is the horizontal distance from the skin’s surface at GV15 to the spinal dura mater. Results: The model suggested that the safety depth (SD) was significantly associated with gender (β = 0.474, P < 0.0001), DGO (β = 0.272, P = 0.027), and BMI (β = 0.249, P = 0.005) and the combination of three variables can explain the SD, with R2 = 0.571 (Table 3). A longer SD was associated with males and with greater BMI and DGO. Conclusion: This study suggests that gender, BMI and DGO may be important factors when the SD of GV15 is considered clinically through a multiple regression analysis of GV15.
10 Title
Keywords neuropathic pain, nociceptive pain, serotonin, toad cake
Author(s) Eiji Inoue, Yasuharu Shimizu, Ryo Masui, Tomomi Usui, Keiichi Sudoh
  Abstract Objectives: This study was conducted to clarify the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. Methods: We counted the writhing response of mice after the intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid as a nociceptive pain model and the withdrawal response after the plantar surface stimulation of the hind paw induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation of the mice as a neuropathic pain model to investigate the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. A co-treatment study with serotonin biosynthesis inhibitory drug 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA), the catecholamine biosynthesis inhibitory drug α-methyl-DL-tyrosine methyl ester hydrochloride (AMPT) or the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone hydrochloride was also conducted. Results: Analgesic effects in a mouse model of nociceptive pain and neuropathic pain were shown by oral administration of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. The effects of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs disappeared upon co-treatment with PCPA, but not with AMPT or naloxone in the nociceptive pain model; the analgesic effect of toad-cake-containing herbal drugs also disappeared upon co-treatment with PCPA in the neuropathic pain model. Conclusion: Toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs have potential for the treatments of nociceptive pain and of neuropathic pain, such as post-herpetic neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, diabetic neuralgia, and postoperative or posttraumatic pain, by activation of the central serotonin nervous system.