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  • [Archive]
  • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
  • pISSN : 2093-6966
  • eISSN : 2234-6856
  • DB Construction : 59 Issues, 667 Articles
Year
Issues
Articles
1 Title
Keywords apoptosis, caspase-3, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), Condurango, lung cancer, reactive oxygen species (ROS)
Author(s) Sourav Sikdar, Avinaba Mukherjee, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh
  Abstract Objectives: Condurango is widely used in various systems of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) against oesophageal and stomach ailments including certain types of cancer. However, until now no systematic study has been conducted to verify its efficacy and dose with proper experimental support. Therefore, we examined if ethanolic extract of Condurango could ameliorate benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-induced lung cancer in rats, in vivo to validate its use as traditional medicine. Methods: Fifteen male and 15 female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated with 0.28 mg/kg of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV) (high-dosage group) and the same numbers of male and female SD rats were treated with 0.2 mL/kg of normal saline (control group) for 13 weeks. We selected five male and five female SD rats from the high-dosage group and the same numbers of male and female SD rats from the control group, and we observed these rats for four weeks. We conducted body-weight measurements, ophthalmic xaminations, urinalyses and hematology, biochemistry, histology tests. Results: A histological study revealed gradual progress in lung tissue-repair activity in Condurango-fed cancer-bearing rats, showing gradual tissue recovery after three months of drug administration. Condurango has the capacity to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may contribute to a reduction in anti-oxidative activity and to an induction of oxidative stress-mediated cancer cell-death. Condurango-activated pro-apoptotic genes (Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, p53, cytochrome-c, apaf-1, ICAD and PARP) and down-regulated antiapoptotic-Bcl-2 expression were noted both at mRNA and protein levels. Studies on caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage by western blot analysis revealed that Condurango induced apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent pathway. Conclusion: The anticancer efficacy of an ethanolic extract of Condurango for treating BaP-induced lung cancer in rats lends support for its use in various traditional systems of medicine.
2 Title
Keywords acupuncture, melittin, pharmacopuncture, Sweet Bee Venom, 13-week repeated dose toxicity, 4-week recovery test
Author(s) Hyunmin Kang, Chungsan Lim, Seungbae Lee, Byoungwoo Kim, Kirok Kwon, Kwangho Lee
  Abstract Objectives: This study was performed to check for reversibility in the changes induced by a 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: Fifteen male and 15 female SD rats were treated with 0.28 mg/kg of SBV (high-dosage group) and the same numbers of male and female SD rats were treated with 0.2 mL/kg of normal saline (control group) for 13 weeks. We selected five male and five female SD rats from the high-dosage group and the same numbers of male and female SD rats from the control group, and we observed these rats for four weeks. We conducted body-weight measurements, ophthalmic examinations, urinalyses and hematology, biochemistry, histology tests. Results: (1) Hyperemia and movement disorder were observed in the 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test, but these symptoms were not observed during the recovery period. (2) The rats in the high-dose group showed no significant changes in weight compared to the control group. (3) No significant differences in the ophthalmic parameters, urine analyses, complete blood cell counts (CBCs), and biochemistry were observed among the recovery groups. (4) No changes in organ weights were observed during the recovery period. (5) Histological examination of the thigh muscle indicated cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis during the treatment period, but these changes were not observed during the recovery period. The fatty liver change that was observed during the toxicity test was not observed during the recovery period. No other organ abnormalities were observed. Conclusion: The changes that occurred during the 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test are reversible, and SBV can be safely used as a treatment modality.
3 Title
Keywords antidepressants, chronic immobilization stress, forced-swimming test, open-field test, pharmacopuncture, Bufonis venenum
Author(s) Min-ji Choi, Ka-na Kim, Jae-Eun Lee, Jin-Woo Suh, Sung- Chul Kim, Ki Rok Kwon, Seung-Hun Cho
  Abstract Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-depressant effects of pharmacopuncture using sumsu (Bufonis venenum). Methods: Animals were divided into three groups (control, sham, and experimental), with eight mice per group. The sham and the experimental groups were exposed to 2 hours of immobilization stress daily for 14 days. They were also injected with normal saline (sham) or subjected to pharmacopuncture with sumsu at the acupoints HT7, SP6, and GV20 (experimental). The depression or anxiety-like behaviors of the mice in each group were evaluated 1 day after treatment. Results: There was no difference in locomotor activity between the groups during the open-field test; i.e., all groups had normal motor function. However, the open-field and the forced-swimming tests revealed that depression and anxiety-like behaviors were decreased significantly in the group treated with sumsu pharmacopuncture. Conclusion: Sumsu pharmacopuncture attenuated depressive or anxiety-like behavior in mice stressed with chronic immobilization. These results suggest that sumsu pharmacopuncture has therapeutic potential for treating neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety or depression disorder.
4 Title
Keywords enzymatic antioxidants, fecal lipids, lipid metabolism, multigrain, non-enzymatic antioxidants, oxidative stress
Author(s) Rupal A. Vasant, Namrata D. Patel, Sanjay S. Karn, Amaravadi V. R. L. Narasimhacharya
  Abstract Objectives: The objective of the present study was to investigate the lipid and the antioxidant regulatory potential of a multigrain diet in laboratory animals with reference to lipid profiles, tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status. Methods: Two types of diets, with or without addition of cholesterol, were used in the study – a commercial diet and a formulated multigrain diet (with Sorghum vulgare, Avena sativa, Pennisetum typhoideum, Oryza sativa, Eleusine coracana and Zea mays grains). After a 10-week period of feeding the diets to albino rats the plasma, liver and fecal lipid profiles and the hepatic and renal antioxidant status of the animals that were fed the commercial and the formulated diets (with and without cholesterol addition) were assessed. Results: The commercial diet supplemented with cholesterol elevated the levels of plasma total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), as well as the atherogenic index (AI). The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) content and the antioxidant profiles (total ascorbic acid, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase reduced glutathione) declined along with increases in lipid peroxidation. The formulated diet (with and without addition of cholesterol) was found to be more efficient than the commercial diet in controlling plasma, hepatic and fecal lipid profiles, as well as hepatic and renal lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status, than of the hypercholesteremic animals. Conclusion: The multigrain diet used in the present study is effective in countering the hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress caused by high cholesterol intake.
5 Title
Keywords acupuncture intramuscular injection, neutral natured blood stasis pharmacopuncture, pharmacopuncture Sprague-Dawley rats, toxicity test
Author(s) In Ho Yeo, Eun Yong Lee
  Abstract Objectives: This study was performed to analyze the single-dose toxicity of neutral natured blood stasis pharmacopuncture extracts. Methods: All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech, an institution authorized to perform non-clinical studies, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the pilot study. Doses of neutral natured blood stasis pharmacopuncture extracts, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mL, were administered to the experimental group, and the same doses of normal saline solution were administered to the control group. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: In all 4 groups, no deaths occurred, and the neutral natured blood stasis pharmacopuncture extracts administered by intramuscular (IM) injection was over 1.0 mL/animal. No significant changes in the body weights between the control group and the experimental group were observed. To check for abnormalities in organs and tissues, we used microscopy to examine representative histological sections of each specified organ; the results showed no significant differences in any organs or tissues. Conclusion: The above findings suggest that treatment with neutral natured blood stasis pharmacopuncture extracts is relatively safe. Further studies on this subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidence.
6 Title
Keywords acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, Samgihwalryeok pharmacopuncture, single toxicity test
Author(s) Kim Sung-Chul, Ahn Seong-Hun
  Abstract Objectives: This study was performed to examine the single-dose toxicity of Samgihwalryeok pharmacopuncture. Methods: Forty six-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups of 10 rats each; each group was then sub-divided into two smaller groups, one of five males and the other of five females. Group 1 (G1, control) received 1.0 mL of normal saline solution, while group 2 (G2, low-dose group), group 3 (G3, mid-does group, and group 4 (G4, high-dose group) received 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mL of Samgihwalryeok pharmacopuncture, respectively. Results: No mortalities or clinical signs were observed in the four groups. Also, no significant changes in body weights were observed among the group, and no significant differences in hematology/biochemistry, necropsy, or histopathology results were noted. Conclusion: The above findings suggest that treatment
7 Title
Keywords acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture, toxicity test
Author(s) Ilhong Son, Sangmi Lee, Doho Kim, Hohyung Jeong, Seung-Hun Cho, Eun-Yong Lee, Seung-Deok Lee, Seong-Hun Ahn, Sungchul Kim
  Abstract Objectives: This study was performed to analyze single dose toxicity and the lethal dose of Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture in rats. Methods: All experiments were conducted at the Korea Testing & Research Institute (KTR), an institution authorized to perform non-clinical studies, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the pilot study. Doses of Scolopendrid pharmacopuncture, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mL, were administered to the experimental group, and 1.0 mL doses of normal saline solution were administered to the control group. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethic Committee. Results: No deaths or abnormalities occurred in any of the groups. No significant changes in the weight, hematological parameters or clinical chemistry were noted between the control group and the experimental group. To check for abnormalities in organs and tissues, we used microscopy to examine representative histological sections of each specified organ; the results showed no significant differences in any of the organs or tissues. Conclusion: The above findings suggest Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture is a relatively safe to use for treatment. Further studies on the subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidence.
8 Title
Keywords acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, Saeng Maek San, toxicity test
Author(s) Min-ji Choi, Sung-chul Kim, Seung-Hun Cho
  Abstract Objectives: This study evaluated the single-dose toxicity of Saeng Maek San (SMS) in rats. Methods: All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech (Chungwon, Korea), an institute authorized to perform non-clinical studies under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). A single-dose intravenous toxicity study was carried out on 40 6-week-old Sprague-Daley rats. The animals were randomly divided into the following four groups of ten animals each: Group 1 (G1) was the control group, with each animal receiving an intravenous injection of 1.0 mL of saline, and Groups 2, 3 and 4 (G2, G3 and G4) were the experimental groups, with the animals in the groups receiving an injection of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mL of SMS, respectively. Mortality, clinical signs, body-weight changes and gross pathological findings were observed for 14 days following a single administration of SMS or saline. Organ weights, clinical chemistry and hematology were analyzed at 14 days. This study was conducted with the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: No deaths occurred in any of the four groups, indicating that the lethal dose of SMS in rats is greater than 1.0 mL/animal. Some changes in weights of male rats between the control group and the experimental groups were observed, but no significant changes in the weights of female rats were noted. To identify bnormalities in organs and tissues, we stained representative sections of each specified organ with hematoxylin and eosin for examination with a light microscope. No significant abnormalities were observed in any of the organs or tissues. Conclusion: The results suggest that intravenous injection of SMS is a safe method of treatment.
9 Title
Keywords intramuscular, melittin, pharmacopuncture, rats, sweet bee venom, 13 weeks repeated dose toxicity
Author(s) Hyunmin Kang, Chungsan Lim, Ki-Rok Kwon, Kwangho Lee
  Abstract Objectives: This study was performed to analyze a 13-week repeated dose toxicity test of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV) extracted from bee venom and administered in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: Male and female 5-week-old SD rats were treated once daily with SBV (high-dosage group: 0.28 mg/kg; medium-dosage group: 0.14 mg/kg; or low-dosage group: 0.07 mg/kg) for 13 weeks. Normal saline was administered to the control group in a similar manner (0.2 mL/kg). We conducted clinical observations, body weight measurements, ophthalmic examinations, urinalyses, hematology and biochemistry tests, and histological observations using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining to identify any abnormalities caused by the SBV treatment. Results: During this study, no mortality was observed in any of the experimental groups. Hyperemia and a movement disorder were observed around the area of in all groups that received SBV treatment, with a higher occurrence in rats treated with a higher dosage. Male rats receiving in the high-dosage group showed a significant decrease in weight during the treatment period. Compared to the control group, no significant changes in the ophthalmic parameters, the urine analyses, the complete blood cell count (CBC), and the biochemistry in the groups treated with SBV. Compared to the control group, some changes in organ weights were observed in the medium-and the high-dosage groups, but the low-dosage group showed no significant changes. Histological examination of thigh muscle indicated cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, and necrosis of muscle fiber, as well as fibrosis, in both the medium- and the high-dosage groups. Fatty liver change was observed in the periportal area of rats receiving medium and high dosages of SBV. No other organ abnormalities were observed. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of SBV is approximately 0.07 mg/kg in male and female SD rats.
10 Title
Keywords atopic dermatitis, bee venom pharmacopuncture, eczema herpeticum, herbal medicine, hwangyeonhaedoktang pharmacopuncture, Kaposi’s varicelliform eruption
Author(s) Dong-Jin Lee, Kang Kwon, Seung-Ho Sun, Hyung-Sik Seo
  Abstract Objectives: This case report is to present a complete recovery from Kaposi’s varicelliform eruption (KVE) that occurred in a patient with atopic dermatitis by applying Korean Medicine therapies. Methods: Hwangyeonhaedoktang pharmacopuncture (HP), 0.3 mL, and 25% bee venom pharmacopuncture (BVP), 0.1 mL, were injected, 0.2 mL each, at both BL13 acupoints once a day in the morning. Acupuncture was applied at Sama Upper, Middle and Lower of the Master Tung acupuncture points and at ST44 on the left lateral for 30 minutes twice a day. The affected face was gauze dressed with mixture of 2.0 mL HP and 1.0 mL 25% BVP with 20 mL of normal saline twice a day. Herbal Medicine, Seungmagalgeuntang, was administered three times a day after each meal. Results: Rashes and papules on the face were completely cleared after 10 days of treatments. Conclusion: KVE, an acute and urgent dermatitis, can be effectively treated with Korean medicine.