• [Archive]
  • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
  • pISSN : 2093-6966
  • eISSN : 2234-6856
  • DB Construction : 59 Issues, 667 Articles
1 Title
Keywords acute toxicity, brine shrimp, kidney, pancreas, Wattakaka volubilis
Author(s) Velmani Gopal, Nitin Agrawal, Subhash C. Mandal
  Abstract Objectives: The present study investigated the toxic properties of petroleum ether extract of Wattakaka (W.) volubilis in Wistar female rats. Methods: An in vitro brine shrimp lethality bioassay was studied in A. Salina nauplii, and the lethality concentrations were assessed for petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis. A water soluble portion of the test extract was used in different concentrations from 100-1000 μg/mL of 1 mg/mL stock solution. A 24-hours incubation with a 1-mL aliquot in 50 mL of aerated sea water was considered to calculate the percentage rate of dead nauplii with test extract administration against a potassium-dichromate positive control. The acute and the sub-acute toxicities of petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis were evaluated orally by using gavage in female Wistar rats. Food and water intake, body weight, general behavioral changes and mortality of animals were noted. Toxicity or death was evaluated following the administration of petroleum ether extract for 28 consecutive days in the female rats. Serum biochemical parameters, such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, glucose, urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and α-amylase levels, were measured in the toxicity evaluations. Pathological changes in isolated organs, such as the liver, kidneys, and pancreas, were also examined using hematoxylin and eosin dye fixation after the end of the test extract’s administration. Results: The results of the brine-shrimp assay indicate that the evaluated concentrations of petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis were found to be non-toxic. In the acute and the sub-acute toxicity evaluations, no significant differences were observed between the control animals and the animals treated with extract of W. volubilis. No abnormal histological changes were observed in any of the animal groups treated with petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis. Conclusion: These results suggest that petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis has a non-toxic effect in Wistar female rats.
2 Title
Keywords acute liver injury, aminotransferase, catalase, Ganoderma lucidum pharmacopuncture (GLP), superoxide dismutase
Author(s) Sun-Hee Jang, Sung-woo Cho, Hyun-Min Yoon, Kyung-Jeon Jang, Chun-Ho Song, Cheol-Hong Kim
  Abstract Objectives: Alcohol abuse is a public issue and one of the major causes of liver disease worldwide. This study was aimed at investigating the protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum pharmacopuncture (GLP) against hepatotoxicity induced by acute ethanol (EtOH) intoxication in rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each: normal, control, normal saline pharmacopuncture (NP) and GLP groups. The control, NP and GLP groups received ethanol orally. The NP and the GLP groups were treated daily with injections of normal saline and Ganoderma lucidum extract, respectively. The control group received no treatment. The rats in all groups, except the normal group, were intoxicated for 6 hours by oral administration of EtOH (6 g/kg BW). The same volume of distilled water was administered to the rats in the normal group. Two local acupoints were used: Qimen (LR14) and Taechung (LR3). A histopathological analysis was performed, and the liver function and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were assessed. Results: GLP treatment reduced the histological changes due to acute liver injury induced by EtOH and significantly reduced the increase in the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme; however, it had an insignificant effect in reducing the increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzyme. It also significantly ameliorated the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the catalase (CAT) activities. Conclusion: The present study suggests that GLP treatment is effective in protecting against ethanol-induced acute hepatic injury in SD rats by modulating the activities of ethanol-metabolizing enzymes and by attenuating oxidative stress.
3 Title
Keywords Guseonwangdo-go, herbal medicine, intravenous injection, pharmacopuncture, toxicity
Author(s) Yu-jong Kim, Su-jeong Jo, Young-doo Choi, Eun-jung Kim, Kap-sung Kim, Seung-deok Lee
  Abstract Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate the single-dose intravenous toxicity of Guseonwangdo-go glucose 20% pharmacopuncture. Methods: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups of five males and five females per group: an intravenous (IV) injection of 1.0 mL of normal saline solution per animal was administered to group 1 (G1, control group); an IV injections of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mL of Guseonwangdo-go glucose pharmacopuncture per animal were administered to experimental groups 2, 3, and 4 (G2, G3, and G4), respectively. General symptoms, body weights, hematological and biochemical test results, and necropsy histopathological observation were recorded in all groups. In the statistical analyses, significance was determined by using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The significance level was 0.05 in all comparisons. Results: For 14 days, no deaths or abnormalities were observed in any of the 4 groups. The body weights of all groups continuously increased during the observation period. In the hematological test, the WBC count was significantly increased in female rats of G4 compared to the control group, but this difference was considered not to be statistically meaningful. No significant biochemical changes were observed. On necropsy, crust formation was observed in one rat of the control group, and granulation tissues were observed around the injection site in one rat of G4; these changes were concluded to have been caused by injection of the needle into a vein. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the lethal dose of Guseonwangdo-go glucose pharmacopuncture is more than 1.0 mL per animal in both male and female rats. Thus, we can conclude that Guseonwangdo-go glucose pharmacopuncture injection is relatively safe to use in acute toxicity tests. Further studies are needed to establish more detailed evidences of its toxicity.
4 Title
Keywords Carthamus tinctorious L., Carthami semen, intravenous, toxicity test, water-soluble carthami-flos pharmacopuncture
Author(s) Da-jung Jung, Yoo-min Choi, Seok-hee Kim, Jong-uk Kim, Tae-han Yook
  Abstract Objectives: This study was performed to analyze the toxicity and to find the lethal dose of the test substance Water-soluble Carthami-flos pharmacopuncture (WCF) when used as a single intravenous-dose in 6-week-old, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: The experiment was conducted at Biotoxtech according to Good Laboratory Practices. 20 female and 20 male Spague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups of 5 female and 5 male animals per group. The rats in the three experimental groups received single intravenous injections with 0.125-mL, 0.25-mL and 0.5-mL/animal doses of WCF, Groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and the control group, Group 1, received a single intravenous injection with a 0.5-mL dose of normal saline. Clinical signs were observed and body weight measurements were carried out for 14 days following the injections. At the end of the observation period, hematology, clinical chemistry, histopathological tests and necropsy were performed on the injected parts. Results: No deaths occurred in any of the groups. Also, no significant changes in body weight, hematological parameters or clinical chemistry test results between the control group and the experimental groups were observed. Visual inspection after necropsy showed no abnormalities. Histopathological tests on the injected parts showed no significant differences, except for Group 1 females; however, the result was spontaneous generation and had no toxicological meaning because it was not dose-dependent. Therefore, this study showed that WCF had no effect on the injected parts in terms of clinical signs, body weight, hematology, clinical chemistry, and necropsy. Conclusion: As a result of single intravenous-dose tests of the test substance WCF in 4 groups of rats, the lethal dose for both males and females exceeded 0.5 mL/animal. Therefore, WCF is a relatively safe pharmacopuncture that can be used for treatment, but further studies should be performed.
5 Title
Keywords acupoint injection, acute gastric ulce, Ganoderma lucidum, pharmacopuncture
Author(s) Jae-Heung Park, Kyung-Jun Jang, Cheol-Hong Kim, Yoo-Hwan Lee, Soo-Jung Lee, Bum-Hoi Kim, Hyun-Min Yoon
  Abstract Objectives: The gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the stomach and duodenum. The basic physiopathology of a gastric ulcer results from an imbalance between some endogenous aggressive and cytoprotective factors. This study examined whether Ganoderma lucidum pharmacopuncture (GLP) would provide protection against acute gastric ulcers in rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 8 rats each: normal, control, normal saline (NP) and GLP groups. The experimental acute gastric ulcer was induced by using an EtOH/HCl solution and the normal group received the same amount of normal saline instead of ethanol. The NP and the GLP groups were treated once with injections of saline and GLP, respectively. Two local acupoints were used: CV12 (中脘) which is the alarm point of the Stomach Meridian, and ST36 (足三里), which is the sea point of the Stomach Meridian. The stomachs from the rats in each group were collected and analyzed for gross appearance and histology. Also, immunohistochemistry staining for BAX, Bcl-2 and TGF-β1 was performed. Results: Histological observations of the gastric lesions in the control group showed comparatively extensive damage of the gastric mucosa and necrotic lesions had penetrated deeply into the mucosa. The lesions were long, hemorrhagic, and confined to the glandular portions. The lesions were measured microscopically by using the clear depth of penetration into the gastric mucosal surface. The length and the width of the ulcer were measured and the inhibition percentage was calculated. Wound healing of the acute gastric ulcer was promoted by using GLP, and significant alterations of indices in gastric mucosa were observed. Such protection was shown by gross appearance, histology and immunohistochemistry staining for BAX, Bcl-2 and TGF-β1. Conclusion: These results suggest that GLP administered at CV12 and ST36 can provide significant protection to the gastric mucosa against an ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer.
6 Title
Keywords acupuncture, ginseng, intravenous toxicity, mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture, oriental medicine
Author(s) Kwangho Lee, Seungho Sun, Junsang Yu, Chungsan Lim, Kirok Kwon
  Abstract Objectives: Mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture (MGP) is an extract distilled from either mountain cultivated ginseng or mountain wild ginseng. This is the first intravenous injection of pharmacopuncture in Korea. The word intravenous does not discriminate between arteries, veins, and capillaries in Oriental Medicine, but only the vein is used for MGP. The aim of this study is to evaluate the intravenous injection toxicity of MGP through a single-dose test in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: Male and female 6-week-old SD rats were injected intravenously with MGP (high dosage of 20 mL/kg or low dosage of 10 mL/kg). Normal saline was injected into the rats in the control group by using the same method. After the rats has treated, we conducted clinical observations, body-weight measurements and histological observations. Results: In this study, no mortalities were observed in any of the experimental groups. Also, no significant changes by the intravenous injection of MGP were observed in the body weights, or the histological observations in any of the experimental groups compared to the control group. The lethal dose for intravenous injection of MGP was found to be over 20 mL/kg in SD rats. Conclusion: Considering that the dosage of MGP generally used each time in clinical practice is about 0.3 mL/kg, we concluded with confidence that MGP is safe pharmacopuncture.
7 Title
Keywords dysarthria, evaluation, korean medicine, visual analogue scale, voice
Author(s) Junsang Yu
  Abstract Objectives: When a person speaks, voice problems usually include pain or discomfort and/or difficulties in terms of the pitch, the loudness and the quality of the voice. When patients with voice problems induced by stroke, Parkinson’s disease, and systemic diseases involving the voice are examined, generally, of the Four Diagnoses (四診), a Diagnosis of Hearing can be used in current Korean medicine. The effects of acupuncture and herb medicine on voice problems have been reported for over 20 years. However, when it comes to improvements, objective and subjective evaluation methods need to be explained. Methods: Subjective methods for evaluating voice were studied through a literature search of old medicinal books containing Korean medicine diagnostics, and an objective evaluation method using Praat software is presented. Results: Korean medicine doctors analyze the patient’s voice in clinical settings unconsciously on a daily basis. However, most voice diagnoses depend on the doctor’s subjective evaluation. Voice qualities can be evaluated by using the Eight Principles (八綱), including Yin-Yang; the Five Elements (Phases); the Grade, Roughness, Breathy, Asthenic, Strained (GRBAS) score, and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) as subjective methods, and an acoustic analysis using the Praat program can be used as an objective method. Conclusion: A more complete voice examination can be achieved by using subjective and objective methods at the same time. For an objective explanation and management of patient’s voice problems or systemic disorders, an objective method should be used in Korean medicine, which already has many subjective diagnostic methods. More research needs to be conducted, and more clinical evidence needs to be collected in the future.
8 Title
Keywords autonomic nerve pharmacopuncture, cancer pain, Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue, mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture, quality of life
Author(s) Hwi-joong Kang, Jung-won Yoon, Ji-hye Park, Chong-kwan Cho, Hwa-seung Yoo
  Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study is to report a case series of advanced cancer patients whose cancer pain was relieved by using autonomic nerve pharmacopuncture (ANP) treatment. ANP is a subcutaneous injection therapy of mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture (MGP) along the acupoints on the spine (Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue; 0.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous processes of vertebrae) to enhance the immune system and to balance autonomic nerve function. Methods: Patients with three different types of cancer (gastric cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer with distant metastases) with cancer pain were treated with ANP. 1 mL of MGP was injected into the bilateral Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue on the T1-L5 sites (total 12 ─ 20 mL injection) of each patient’s dorsum by using the principle of symptom differentiation. During ANP treatment, the visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain was used to assess their levels of cancer pain; also, the dosage and the frequency of analgesic use were measured. Results: The cancer pain levels of all three patients improved with treatment using ANP. The VAS scores of the three patients decreased as the treatment progressed. The dosage and the frequency of analgesics also gradually decreased during the treatment period. Significantly, no related adverse events were found. Conclusion: ANP has shown benefit in controlling cancer pain for the three different types of cancer investigated in this study and in reducing the dosage and the frequency of analgesics. ANP is expected to be beneficial for reducing cancer pain and, thus, to be a promising new treatment for cancer pain.
9 Title
Keywords pharmacopuncture, sexual dysfunction, sweet bee venom, urogenital disease
Author(s) Pavel Lee, Junsang Yu
  Abstract Sexual dysfunction (SD) is a health problem which occurs during any phase of the sexual response cycle that keeps the individual or couple from experiencing satisfaction from the sexual activity. SD covers a wide variety of symptoms like in men, erectile dysfunction and premature or delayed ejaculation, in women, spasms of the vagina and pain with sexual intercourse, in both sexes, sexual desire and response. And pharmacopuncture, i.e. injection of subclinical doses of drugs, mostly herb medicine, in acupoints, has been adopted with successful results. This case report showed the effect of bee venom on SD. A 51-year-old male patient with SD, who had a past history of taking Western medication to treat his SD and who had previously undergone surgery on his lower back due to a herniated disc, received treatments using pharmacopuncture of sweet bee venom (SBV) at Gwanwon (CV4), Hoeeum (CV1), Sinsu (BL23), and Gihaesu (BL24) for 20 days. Objectively, the patient showed improvement on most items on the International Index for Erectile Dysfunction (IIEF) like 28 to 29 out of perfect score 30 for erectile function, 10 to 10 out of perfect score 10 for orgasmic function, 6 to 8 out of perfect score 10 for sexual desire, 10 to 13 out of perfect score 15 for satisfaction with intercourse, and 6 to 8 out of perfect score 10 for overall satisfaction; subjectively, his words, the tone of his voice and the look of confidence in his eyes all indicated improvement. Among the variety of effects of SBV pharmacopuncture, urogenital problems such as SD may be health problems that pharmacopuncture can treat effectively.
10 Title
Keywords mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture, neurofibroma, neurofibromatosis type 1, pharmacopuncture, plexiform neurofibroma, sweet bee venom
Author(s) Chungsan Lim, Kirok Kwon, Kwangho Lee
  Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study is to report a case of a plexiform neurofibroma (PNF) in the pelvic region treated with sweet bee venom (SBV) and mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture (MGP). Methods: A 16-year-old girl was diagnosed as having PNFs, neurofibromatosis type 1, 10 years ago and she had surgery three times to remove the benign tumors, but the growth of the PNFs continued. She has been treated in our clinic with SBV and MGP two times per month from March 2010 to April 2014. SBV was injected intra-subcutaneously at the borders of the PNFs in the pelvic region, and MGP was administrated intravenously each treatment time. Results: The growths of the PNFs occurred rapidly and continued steadily before treatment. Since March 2010, she has been treated in our clinic, and the growths of the PNFs have almost stopped; further-more, the discomfort of hip joint pain has been reduced, and her general condition has improved. Conclusion: We cautiously conclude that SBV and MGP treatment has some effects that suppress the growth and the spread of the PNFs in this patient.