• [Archive]
  • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
  • pISSN : 2093-6966
  • eISSN : 2234-6856
  • DB Construction : 59 Issues, 667 Articles
1 Title
Keywords anti-coagulants, bee venom, chromatography, LD50
Author(s) Hossein Zolfagharian, Mohammad Mohajeri, Mahdi Babaie
  Abstract Objectives: Bee venom (BV) is a complex mixture of proteins and contains proteins such as phospholipase and melittin, which have an effect on blood clotting and blood clots. The mechanism of action of honey bee venom (HBV, Apis mellifera) on human plasma proteins and its anti-thrombotic effect were studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-coagulation effect of BV and its effects on blood coagulation and purification. Methods: Crude venom obtained from Apis mellifera was selected. The anti-coagulation factor of the crude venom from this species was purified by using gel filtration chromatography (sephadex G-50), and the molecular weights of the anti-coagulants in this venom estimated by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Blood samples were obtained from 10 rabbits, and the prothrombin time (PT) and the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) tests were conducted. The approximate lethal dose (LD) values of BV were determined. Results: Crude BV increased the blood clotting time. For BV concentrations from 1 to 4 mg/mL, clotting was not observed even at more than 300 seconds, standard deviations (SDs) = ± 0.71; however, clotting was observed in the control group 13.8 s, SDs = ± 0.52. Thus, BV can be considered as containing anti-coagulation factors. Crude BV is composed 4 protein bands with molecular weights of 3, 15, 20 and 41 kilodalton (kDa), respectively. The LD50 of the crude BV was found to be 177.8 μg/mouse. Conclusion: BV contains anti-coagulation factors. The fraction extracted from the Iranian bees contains proteins that are similar to anti-coagulation proteins, such as phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and melittin, and that can increase the blood clotting times in vitro.
2 Title
Keywords blood glucose, diabetes, dyslipidemia, oral glucose tolerance, oxidative stress
Author(s) Padmaja Chaturvedi, Tebogo Elvis Kwape
  Abstract Objectives: This study was done out to evaluate the effects of Sida rhombifolia methanol extract (SRM) on diabetes in moderately diabetic (MD) and severely diabetic (SD) Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: SRM was prepared by soaking the powdered plant material in 70% methanol and rota evaporating the methanol from the extract. Effective hypoglycemic doses were established by performing oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in normal rats. Hourly effects of SRM on glucose were observed in the MD and the SD rats. Rats were grouped, five rats to a group, into normal control 1 (NC1), MD control 1 (MDC1), MD experimental 1 (MDE1), SD control 1 (SDC1), and SD experimental 1 (SDE1) groups. All rats in the control groups were administered 1 mL of distilled water (DW). The rats in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups were administered SRM orally at 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight (BW), respectively, dissolved in 1 mL of DW. Blood was collected initially and at intervals of 1 hour for 6 hours to measure blood glucose. A similar experimental design was followed for the 30-day long-term trial. Finally, rats were sacrificed, and blood was collected to measure blood glucose, lipid profiles, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Results: OGTTs indicated that two doses (200 and 300 mg/kg BW) were effective hypoglycemic doses in normal rats. Both doses reduced glucose levels after 1 hour in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups. A long-term trial of SRM in the MD group showed a reduced glucose level, a normal lipid profile, and normal GSH and TBARS levels. In SD rats, SRM had no statistically significant effects on these parameters. Normal weight was achieved in the MD rats, but the SD rats showed reduced BW. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that SRM has potential to alleviate the conditions of moderate diabetic, but not severe diabetes.
3 Title
Keywords alopecia, anagen, hair follicle, thread-embedding therapy
Author(s) Hyun Jong Shin, Dong-Jin Lee, Kang Kwon, Ji-Yeon Lee, Ki-Tae Ha, Chang- Hyun Lee, Yong-Suk Jang, Byung-Wook Lee, Byung Joo Kim, Myeong-Ho Jung, Hyung-Sik Seo, Han-Sol Jeong
  Abstract Objectives: Recently, thread-embedding therapy (TET) has been widely applied in Korean medicine for cosmetic purposes such as reducing skin wrinkles. An inserted thread was reported to have induced continuous stimulation, followed by support for connective tissue regeneration. However, the potential role of TET in hairgrowth has not yet been reported. Methods: We designed this study to evaluate whether TET has a hair-growth-promoting effect. C57 black 6 (C57BL/6) mice were divided into three groups: normal saline-treated, minoxidil-treated, and thread-embedded groups. Normal saline or 5% minoxidil was topically sprayed on the dorsal skin of the mice once a day for 16 days. Medical threads were embedded into the dorsal skin of the mice in a single application. Hair growth activity was evaluated by using dermoscopic and microscopic observations. Sections of the dorsal skin were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Expressions of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7), and fibroblast growth factor-5 (FGF-5) were detected by using immunohistochemical staining. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was adopted to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of FGF-7 and FGF-5. Results: TET enhanced anagen development in the hair follicles of C57BL/6 mice. The expressions of BrdU and PCNA, both of which imply active cellular proliferation, were increased by using TET. Moreover, TET increased the expression of FGF-7, an anagen-inducing growth factor, while decreasing the expression of FGF-5, an anagen-cessation growth factor, both at the protein and the mRNA levels. Conclusion: TET enhanced hair re-growth in C57BL/6 mice. TET regulated the expressions of anagen-associated growth factors and activated the proliferation of hair follicular cells in depilated skin lesions. Considering its long-lasting effect, TET may be a good alternative therapeutic for the treatment of alopecia.
4 Title
Keywords acupuncture evaluation, chronic pelvic pain, myofascial abdominal syndrome, trigger points
Author(s) Andréia Mitidieri, Maria Beatriz Gurian, Ana Paula Silva, Kalil Tawasha, Omero Poli-Neto, Antônio Nogueira, Francisco Reis, Júlio Rosa-e-Silva
  Abstract Objectives: This study used semiology based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to investigate vital energy (Qi) behavior in women with abdominal myofascial pain syndrome (AMPS). Methods: Fifty women diagnosed with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) secondary to AMPS were evaluated by using a questionnaire based on the theories of “yin-yang,” “zang-fu”, and “five elements”. We assessed the following aspects of the illness: symptomatology; specific location of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs); onset, cause, duration and frequency of symptoms; and patient and family history. The patients tongues, lips, skin colors, and tones of speech were examined. Patients were questioned on various aspects related to breathing, sweating, sleep quality, emotions, and preferences related to color, food, flavors, and weather or seasons. Thirst, gastrointestinal dysfunction, excreta (feces and urine), menstrual cycle, the five senses, and characteristic pain symptoms related to headache, musculoskeletal pain, abdomen, and chest were also investigated. Results: Patients were between 22 and 56 years old, and most were married (78%), possessed a elementary school (66%), and had one or two children (76%). The mean body mass index and body fat were 26.86 kg/cm2 (range: 17.7 — 39.0) and 32.4% (range: 10.7 — 45.7), respectively. A large majority of women (96%) exhibited alterations in the kidney meridian, and 98% had an altered gallbladder meridian. We observed major changes in the kidney and the gallbladder Qi meridians in 76% and 62% of patients, respectively. Five of the twelve meridians analyzed exhibited Qi patterns similar to pelvic innervation Qi and meridians, indicating that the paths of some of these meridians were directly related to innervation of the pelvic floor and abdominal region. Conclusion: The women in this study showed changes in the behavior of the energy meridians, and the paths of some of the meridians were directly related to innervation of the pelvic floor and abdominal region.
5 Title
Keywords body mass index, Braverman nature assessment, QSCC II, Sasang constitutional medicine
Author(s) Soojin Lee, Jun-Sang Yu, Siwoo Lee
  Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological characteristics of the Sasang constitutions by using Braverman nature assessment (BNA). Methods: One hundred seventy-four students participated in this study, and among them, the 142 individuals who had clearly identified Sasang constitutional types were used for the analysis. Sasang constitutions and the Braverman temperaments of the subjects were determined by using a questionnaire for the Sasang constitution classification (QSCC) II and BNA, respectively. Body mass index (BMI) was used to compare the inclinations of the Sasang constitutions and Braverman temperament types. Results: Significant differences in Braverman temperament type existed among the Sasang constitutions (P = 0.042), and the relations between Soyangin and the dopamine type and between Taeeumin and the gamma- aminobutyric acid (GABA) type were meaningful. Significant differences were also shown in the comparison with the Yin and the Yang constitutions (P = 0.017), and the post-hoc analysis showed a strong and significant relation between the Yang constitution and the dopamine type and between the Yin constitution and the GABA type. The one–way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the independent t-test were conducted to examine the BMI and the degree of obesity among the Sasang constitutions and the Braverman temperament types. Concerning the BMI, Taeeumin showed a bigger BMI than the other constitutions (P < 0.001), but no significant differences in the BMI were observed between the Braverman temperament types. Conclusion: Soyangin has a close relationship to the dopamine type and Taeeumin has a close relationship to the GABA type. The correlation between two types were more clear when the Yin and the Yang types were compared to Braverman temperaments. These results may serve as a basis for identifying the psychological traits of Sasang constitutional types, especially in regard to the characteristics related to the four Braverman temperament types.
6 Title
Keywords aqua acupuncture, herbal acupuncture, intravenous toxicity, radix ginseng
Author(s) Jun-Sang Yu, Seung-Ho Sun, Kwang-Ho Lee, Ki-Rok Kwon
  Abstract Objectives: Radix Ginseng has been used for thousands of years to treat a wide variety of diseases. Radix ginseng has also been used as a traditional medicine for boosting Qi energy and tonifying the spleen and lungs. Traditionally, its effect could be obtained orally. Nowadays, a new method, the injection of herbal medicine, is being used. This study was performed to investigate the single- dose intravenous toxicity of water-soluble ginseng pharmacopuncture (WSGP) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: All experiments were carried out at Biotoxtech, an institute authorized to perform non-clinical studies under the regulation of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). At the age of six weeks, 40 SD rats, 20 male rats and 20 female rats, were allocated into one of 4 groups according to the dosages they would receive. The WSGP was prepared in the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute under the regulation of Korea-Good Manufacturing Practice (K-GMP). Dosages of WSGP were 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mL/animal for the experimental groups, and normal saline was administered to the control group. The rat's general conditions and body weights, the results of their hematological and biochemistry tests, and their necropsy and histopathological findings were investigated to identify the toxicological effect of WSGP injected intravenously. The effect was examined for 14 days after the WSGP injection. This study was performed under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of Biotoxtech. Results: No deaths were found in this single-dose toxicity test on the intravenous injection of WSGP, and no significant changes in the rat's general conditions and body weights, the results on their hematological and biochemistry test, and their necropsy findings were observed during the test. The local area of the injection site showed minial change. The lethal dose was assumed to be over 1.0 mL/animal in both sexes. Conclusion: These results indicate that WSGP is safe at dosages up to 1 mL/animal.
7 Title
Keywords four week repeated toxicity test, gami jakyak gamcho buja decoction (mecasin), herbal medicine, sprague-dawley rat
Author(s) Eunhye Cha, Jongchul Lee, Seongjin Lee, Manyong Park, Inja Song, Ilhong Son, Bong-Keun Song, Dongwoung Kim, Jongdeok Lee, Sungchul Kim
  Abstract Objectives: In this study, we investigated the 4-week repeated-dose oral toxicity of gami-jakyak gamcho buja decoction (Mecasin) to develop safe treatments. Methods: In order to investigate the 4-week oral toxicity of Mecasin, we administered Mecasin orally to rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups of five male and five female animals per group: group 1 being the control group and groups 2, 3, and 4 being the experimental groups. Doses of Mecasin of 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg of body weight were administered to the experimental groups, and a dose of normal saline solution of 10 mL/kg was administered to the control group. We examined the survival rate, weight, clinical signs, and gross findings for four weeks. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: No deaths occurred in any of the four groups. No significant changes in weights or food consumption between the control group and the experimental groups were observed. Serum biochemistry revealed that some groups showed significant decrease in inorganic phosphorus (IP) (P < 0.05). During necropsy on the rats, one abnormal macroscopic feature, a slight loss of fur, was observed in the mid dosage (1,000 mg/ kg) male group. No abnormalities were observed in any other rats. In histopathological findings, the tubular basophilia and cast of the kidney and extramedullary hematopoiesis of the spleen were found. However, those changes were minimal and had occurred naturally or sporadically. No other organ abnormalities were observed. Conclusion: During this 4-week, repeated, oral toxicity test of Mecasin in SD rats, no toxicity changes due to Mecasin were observed in any of the male or the female rats in the high dosage group. Thus, we suggest that the doses in a 13-week, repeated test should be 0, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg respectively.
8 Title
Keywords Bufonis venonum, chan-su, pharmacopuncture, toxicity test
Author(s) Kwang-Ho Lee, Seung-Ho Sun, Jun-Sang Yu, Ki-Rok Kwon
  Abstract Objectives: Bufonis venonum (BV) is the dried white secretions of the auricular and skin glands of the toads Bufo bufo gargarizans or Bufo melanosticus Schneider. This study was performed to evaluate the toxicity of intramuscularly- administered Bufonis venonum pharmacopuncture (BVP) and to calculate its approximate lethality through a single-dose test with Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: Twenty male and 20 female 6-week-old SD rats were injected intramuscularly with BVP or normal saline. The animals were divided into four groups with five female and five male rats per group: the control group injected with normal saline at 0.5 mL/animal, the low-dosage group injected with 0.125 mL/animal of BVP, the medium-dosage group injected with 0.25 mL/animal of BVP and the high-dosage group injected with 0.5 mL/animal of BVP. All injections were in the left thighs of the rats. After administration, we conducted clinical observations everyday and body weight measurements on days 3, 7 and 14 after the injection. We also carried out hematology, serum biochemistry, and histological observations on day 15 after treatment. Results: No mortalities were observed in any experimental group. No significant changes in weight, hematology, serum biochemistry, and histological observations that could be attributed to the intramuscular injection of BVP were observed in any experimental group. Conclusion: Lethal dose of BVP administered via intramuscular injection in SD rats is over 0.5 mL/animal.
9 Title
Keywords anaphylaxis, bee venom, hypersensitivity reaction, sweet bee venom, systemic immediate
Author(s) NaYoung Jo, JeongDu Roh
  Abstract Objectives: A previous study showed that bee venom (BV) could cause anaphylaxis or other hypersensitivity reactions. Although hypersensitivity reactions due to sweet bee venom (SBV) have been reported, SBV has been reported to be associated with significantly reduced sensitization compared to BV. Although no systemic immediate hypersensitive response accompanied by abnormal vital signs has been reported with respect to SBV, we report a systemic immediate hypersensitive response that we experienced while trying to use SBV clinically. Methods: The patient had undergone BV treatment several times at other Oriental medicine clinics and had experienced no adverse reactions. She came to acupuncture & moxibustion department at Semyung university hospital of Oriental medicine (Je-cheon, Korea) complaining of facial hypoesthesia and was treated using SBV injections, her first SBV treatment. SBV, 0.05 cc, was injected at each of 8 acupoints, for a total of 0.40 cc: Jichang (ST4), Daeyeong (ST5), Hyeopgeo (ST6), Hagwan (ST7), Yepung (TE17), Imun (TE21), Cheonghoe (GB2), and Gwallyeo (SI18). Results: The patient showed systemic immediate hypersensitive reactions. The main symptoms were abdominal pain, nausea and perspiration, but common symptoms associated with hypersensitivity, such as edema, were mild. Abdominal pain was the most long-lasting symptom and was accompanied by nausea. Her body temperature decreased due to sweating. Her diastolic blood pressure could not be measured on three occasions. She remained alert, though the symptoms persisted. The following treatments were conducted in sequence; intramuscular epinephrine, 1 mg/mL, injection, intramuscular dexamethasone, 5 mg/mL, injection, intramuscular buscopan, 20 mg/mL, injection, oxygen (O2) inhalation therapy, 1 L/minutes, via a nasal prong, and intravascular injection of normal saline, 1 L. After 12 hours of treatment, the symptoms had completely disappeared. Conclusion: This case shows that the use of SBV does not completely eliminate the possibility of hypersensitivity and that patients who received BV treatment before may also be sensitized to SBV. Thus, a skin test should be given prior to using SBV.
10 Title
Keywords herbal medicine, oral toxicity, super key (processed sulfur), toxicity test
Author(s) Jinhee Kim, Jongcheol Lee, Sungchul Kim
  Abstract The original article ‘A Study on the Single-dose Oral Toxicity of Super Key in Sprague-Dawley Rats’ (J Pharmacopuncture 2015;18(3):63-67, DOI: http://dx.doi. org/10.3831/KPI.2015.18.026) by Jinhee Kim, Jongcheol Lee, Sungchul Kim was published with an incorrect Acknowledgements due to a production error. The correct Acknowledgements are reported below. Acknowledgments This study was supported by a grant from the Korean Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI) funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant number: HI14C0551). This text was incorrect and should be: Acknowledgments This study was supported by a grant from the Korean Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI) funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant number: HI11C2142). We apologize to the authors and readers.